PipeChat Digest #167 - Wednesday, December 17, 1997 Article on Reed Stops for Organ Alternatives Quarterly Newsletter-Hal Go by CJSD <firstname.lastname@example.org> Belated x-post - Anti-Stress: PDQ Bach quiz (Non-organic) by Patricia R. Maimone <email@example.com> "Dainty Miss" by Bob and Sally Evans <orgnloft@Ma.ultranet.com> Re: "Dainty Miss" by Roger <firstname.lastname@example.org> Re: "Dainty Miss" by Bob and Sally Evans <orgnloft@Ma.ultranet.com> Web page - Merry Christmas by Myosotis51 <Myosotis51@aol.com> Searching for residence/practice instrument by Schwebung <Schwebung@aol.com> Re: "Dainty Miss" by Dr. Edward Peterson <email@example.com> Looking for Wurlitzer Name Plate by Theo08610 <Theo08610@aol.com> P. Hans Flath by Mac Hayes <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(back) Subject: Article on Reed Stops for Organ Alternatives Quarterly Newsletter-Hal Gober From: CJSD <email@example.com> Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 10:38:06 -0500 (EST) The following article by Halbert Gober is reprinted with permission from the "Organ Alternatives Newsletter" You can find out more about the "Organ Alternatives Newsletter" by pointing your Browser to: http://www.orgalt.com/ ********************************* >The reed stops > >The reeds stops of the organ are the most complex pipes in the organ and >produce the most complex sounds. Technically, they are analogous to a reed >instrument such as the clarinet, having a curved brass tongue which >vibrates against the flat surface of a brass tube, the shallot, which has a >flat surface along one side. The shallot opens into the main body of the >pipe, the resonator, whose length is tuned to the pitch of the tongue. >When the note is played, wind enters the pipe, the reed vibrates against >the shallot, and the air column in the resonator is set in vibration by the >tongue. > >The baroque orchestra > >The organ was the earliest synthesizer, a powerful and versatile one-man >band which enabled a single musician to provide solo polyphonic music or >accompaniment to a singing congregation . The principal chorus, unique to >the organ, uses a build-up of overtones to produce a grand and loud sound. >But many of the stops in the classical organbuilder's repertoire are >orchestral imitative stops. The flutes: Gedackt, Rohrfl=F6te, and >Spitzfl=F6te, imitate the recorder family using pipes of various shapes. = The >reeds originated as interpretations of such early instruments as the >sackbuts, the cornetto, and the reed instruments: krummhorn, dulzian, >bassoon, and oboe. > >Conical and cylindrical > >The organ pipes which are supposed to sound like those instruments are made >very differently from the instruments themselves. They are similar in that >reed pipes as well as the wind instruments of the orchestra can be >classified by shape of resonator. Conical organ pipes belong to the >trumpet family and cylindrical organ pipes belong to what may be called the >krummhorn or clarinet family. These two classes are analogous to the two >types of flue pipes, open and stopped. They are analogous in two ways: a >conical resonator produces the full series of overtones, as does an open >pipe. A cylindrical resonator produces only every other overtone, like a >stopped pipe. Also, the natural length of a trumpet's conical resonator is >approximately 8 ft for low C on the keyboard, while the natural length of a >Clarinet's cylindrical resonator is half that, approximately 4 ft. In the >same way, an open low C flue pipe is about 8 ft long and a stopped low C >flue pipe is about 4 ft long. > >There do exist reed pipes, conical and cylindrical, with resonators of half >the natural length. With their inferior tone, they were shunned by >mainstream organbuilders until the neo-baroque movement of this century. > >Regals > >Regal stops have resonators which are not tuned to the pitch of the tongue. >They are various lengths and shapes. We usually think of the regal as a >Renaissance organ stop - a regal may also be an independent instrument, a >small keyboard having pipes whose brash sound is untamed by their short or >even non-existent resonators. But, physically, the vox humana stop, >popular in the French tradition, is a regal. > >French and German > >These are the two big traditions of classical reedmaking. The most >significant divergence is in the size of the shallot. French shallots have >smaller diameters. This makes for narrower tongues, which produce a >bright, brash sound with a snappy speech. German reeds produce a dark, >round sound in the bass and a somewhat veiled sound in the treble. The >effect is that of a Posaunenchor, a brass choir. The English reedmaking >tradition, which reached its full development in the 19th and 20th >centuries, takes the French romantic reedmaking tradition to new heights of >power and smoothness, culminating in the remarkable phenomenon of >high-pressure tuba stops. > >Smooth or brash > >The reeds to be the crowning glory of organ sound. Yet what we find >glorious in them reflects our taste in organ sound as a whole. Everyone >loves a loud trumpet treble with snappy speech for playing trumpet >voluntaries on, but the bass range of that same trumpet may be >overbearingly loud and snarly. This is a problem with putting authentic >French reeds, or Spanish-style horizontal trumpets, in North American >churches, with their dry acoustics. Such reed sounds are disconcertingly >similar to those of electronic organs! In fact, I think there is a real >connection. When the pendulum of taste swung from the dark woolly sound of >pre-WWII organs to the neo-baroque fascination with brightness for its own >sake, organbuilders started making growly reeds with little body...a tone >which can easily be imitated electronically. Personally, the older I get, >the more I prefer the dignified, distinguished sound of a smooth reed. It >lacks the raw excitement of a powerful, piercing stop, but is much more >suited to the contemplative rendering of many types of music. > >The details > >"Schnarrwerck bleibt Narrwerck." This German saying, meaning roughly "the >growling reeds are the work of fools", expresses the frustration of the >organbuilder who takes on the challenge of making and voicing reed pipes. >So many things have to be just right, starting with numerous aspects of the >scales, the dimensions of the shallot and resonator, and the manufacturing >itself, which must be meticulous. A reed pipe has seven parts: the >resonator stands atop a hole in a lead block whose lower end receives the >shallot and tongue, which are held tight by a wedge. This assembly stands >in a foot, or boot, and a tuning wire, whose position determines the >vibrating length of the tongue, protrudes from the block. All of that is >just the stage on which the most essential thing is produced. That is the >curve of the tongue, imparted by the voicer's burning the tongue with a >steel or wooden tool. This is a largely trial and error process, informed >by experience, and often made difficult by obscure physical phenomena >having to do with unpredictable resonances in the boot or windchest. > >Tuning > >Why don't the reeds stay in tune? It's not just all those fussy little >parts getting out of whack. They may cause a particular pipe to go out of >tune, as may a fly or dust falling in. But to understand the tuning of >reeds, it's necessary to ask a better question: why don't the reeds stay >in tune with the rest of the organ? > >If you tune the flue pipes of an organ, for example, at 17 degrees C., then >raise the temperature to 22 degrees C., they will go sharp by an exactly >predictable amount but remain in tune with each other. The density of the >air column in the pipes changes with temperature, and the air column >produces the sound. The reed stops, however, whose pitch is determined by >the brass tongue rather than the air column, will stay put and therefore be >flat of the flues. Then, if you cool the organ back down to 17 degrees, >the flues will come back where they were and everything will be in tune >again. So it's important to tune the reeds at the temperature at which the >organ is normally used, and be aware that the out of tuneness is often a >temporary problem related to the room temperature. > ************************************************************ Simon Dyk Toronto Canada GOBER ORGANS INC. http://www.netrover.com/~noto/gober/index.htm CHURCH OF THE TRANSFIGURATION http://www.interlog.com/~transfig/trans.htm PERSONAL HOME PAGE: http://www.netrover.com/~noto/gober/~noto.html =20
(back) Subject: Belated x-post - Anti-Stress: PDQ Bach quiz (Non-organic) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Patricia R. Maimone) Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 17:33:41 -0500 Hello, Pipechatters.. For some stress relief at this hectic time of year.. try this web site.. ..... the PDQ Bach quiz that my son Mark designed for Carnegie Hall.. http://www.carnegiehall.org/entertainment/trivia.html OK, now `fess up... How many like to attend PDQ Bach `concerts'? (Perhaps private replies <email@example.com> would be preferable!) (** Be sure to change the Reply To: feature** .. see Karl Keller's previous post...) Pat Maimone (soon to go handbell ringing for the second time in two nights.) firstname.lastname@example.org ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(back) Subject: "Dainty Miss" From: orgnloft@Ma.ultranet.com (Bob and Sally Evans) Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 18:25:25 -0500 (EST) Greetings Listers, Does anyone out there have, or know where to get a copy of the novelty tune, "Dainty Miss"? This was a very popular selection and was offered by many prominent theater organists during the "heyday". Thsnks, Bob Evans Bob's Wurlitzer Loft Swansea, MA Home of "Rochelle" the RJ-12 Wurlitzer Pipe Organ
(back) Subject: Re: "Dainty Miss" From: "Roger" <email@example.com> Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 16:31:07 -0800 Would it still be protected by copy right? If not, I could make a photocopy for you--if you can't find someone to sell you their copy.
(back) Subject: Re: "Dainty Miss" From: orgnloft@Ma.ultranet.com (Bob and Sally Evans) Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 19:56:44 -0500 (EST) >Would it still be protected by copy right? > >If not, I could make a photocopy for you--if you can't find someone to sell >you their copy. > Hi, I haven't got a clue. The song is old and I can't even find out the composer. But...I'd never tell if you wouldn't. This is just for my own use anyway. I'm just a three thumbs organist who likes the song. Thanks, Bob Evans Bob's Wurlitzer Loft Swansea, MA Home of "Rochelle" the RJ-12 Wurlitzer Pipe Organ
(back) Subject: Web page - Merry Christmas From: Myosotis51 <Myosotis51@aol.com> Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 21:11:36 EST I created a web page, wanted to share it: <A HREF="http://members.aol.com/Myosotis51/vicki.html">Myosotis51's Home Page </A>
(back) Subject: Searching for residence/practice instrument From: Schwebung <Schwebung@aol.com> Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 22:29:06 EST I am currently looking to locate a small (6 to 8 rank) pipe organ suitable for a residence/practice instrument. Prefer to find an instrument with a drawknob console in as complete condition as possible. Midwest area preferred, but will consider other location. Willing to pay a reasonable price dependent on specification, maker and condition.
(back) Subject: Re: "Dainty Miss" From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Edward Peterson) Date: Wed, 17 Dec 1997 01:17:20 -0500 On Tue, 16 Dec 1997 19:56:44 -0500 (EST), orgnloft@Ma.ultranet.com (Bob and Sally Evans) wrote: >>Would it still be protected by copy right? >> >>If not, I could make a photocopy for you--if you can't find someone to sell >>you their copy. >> > Hi, > > I haven't got a clue. The song is old and I can't even find out the >composer. But...I'd never tell if you wouldn't. > "Dainty Miss" - Bernard Barnes, 1924 (Sorry, no other data available here) E/
(back) Subject: Looking for Wurlitzer Name Plate From: Theo08610 <Theo08610@aol.com> Date: Wed, 17 Dec 1997 03:05:55 EST Anyone have a Wurlitzer nameplate off a deceased Wurlitzer console... You know, the nice Wurlitzer which clearly identified the builder of the console. Thanks, Ted
(back) Subject: P. Hans Flath From: Mac Hayes <email@example.com> Date: Wed, 17 Dec 1997 01:11:42 -0800 Bill Hooper wrote: [on PIPORG-L] > ... > ... Carl Stalling was Kansas > City's hottest theater organist until Uncle Walt lured him to > Hollywood to score Silly Symphonies...) ... Aha! Another mention of Kansas City. Does that mean you are familiar with the Kansas City music scene, historically speaking, or was that just an item in your database? Whatever, would you know anything about P. Hans Flath, who played one of the local radio station's theatre organs on a nightly 15-minute musical interlude? The station was either KMBC or KCMO, and the period was mid-to-late 1940's. As a 12-13 year-old I thought he was a great musician. I called the station once to find out the name of his theme song, and heard someone call across the room using the nickname "Skipper." His theme was an original composition. He always played something using bells in the melody line-- I don't know if it was xylophone, celesta, chimes, or glockenspiel. Maybe all of those. -- Mac Hayes firstname.lastname@example.org TANSTAAFL