PipeChat Digest #212 - Thursday, January 22, 1998
 
Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities
  by Chong Ten Yeen <art60378@leonis.nus.edu.sg>
Re:SANFILIPPO COLLECTION BROCHURES
  by <steve.lamanna@tavsnet.com>
Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities
  by E. Margo Dillard <emd0002@jove.acs.unt.edu>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by Paul Opel <popel@sover.net>
Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities
  by Chong Ten Yeen <art60378@leonis.nus.edu.sg>
t&f
  by karl fischer <karl_der_kaiser@hotmail.com>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by Adam Levin <alevin@advance.net>
Re: t&f
  by John L. Speller <jlspeller@stlnet.com>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by John Daly <jdaly@palmnet.net>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by PHarri5833 <PHarri5833@aol.com>
Hymn playing
  by Kenneth O. Woods <kow987@dice.crane.navy.mil>
Re: t&f
  by bruce cornely <cremona84000@webtv.net>
Rogers Organ Suite
  by RSiegel920 <RSiegel920@aol.com>
Re: pedals on hymns
  by ComposerTX <ComposerTX@aol.com>
Re: PipeChat Digest #211 - 01/22/98
  by Bruce Behnke <behnke@isat.com>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by Mac Hayes <mach37@ptw.com>
Re:SANFILIPPO COLLECTION BROCHURES
  by Robert Ridgeway <ridgeway@ais.net>
Re: t&f
  by Kevin Cartwright <kevin1@alaweb.com>
Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities
  by Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net>
Re: MIDI vs copyright
  by RSiegel920 <RSiegel920@aol.com>
Re: t&f
  by Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net>
Re: pedals on hymns
  by Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net>
 


(back) Subject: Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities From: Chong Ten Yeen <art60378@leonis.nus.edu.sg> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 20:47:12 +0800 (SST)     Talking about rings-and-playing, and since we organists do such wonderful things with our feet, does anyone wear anklets? Thought the coolest would have been those worn by Hindu dancers, with tens of little jingling bells attached to each anklet, the bells sounding with the slightest movement of the foot. Who knows, one day there might be a piece composed "For Organ and Anklet-bells"?   No, I don't wear anklets (not yet...). Have seen people manage quite well with dangling bracelets on, though I personally find these getting too much in the way. Rings don't form a regular part of my accessories, but I do remove my watch before playing.   Ten Yeen   --* I'd rather be a failure at something I love *-- than be a success at something I hate. -George Burns-          
(back) Subject: Re:SANFILIPPO COLLECTION BROCHURES From: steve.lamanna@tavsnet.com Date: Thu, 22 Jan 98 07:50:07 -0500     Robert...   Could you tell us where we could order current recordings on the Sanfilippo 4/80......is it the same place and how much are they postpaid???   Thanks.   Steve LaManna      
(back) Subject: Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities From: "E. Margo Dillard" <emd0002@jove.acs.unt.edu> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 07:12:47 -0600 (CST)   Hhmmmmmmm.... I think I see a crossover to an old thread - how to make your own zimbelstern..... ;-)   On Thu, 22 Jan 1998, Chong Ten Yeen wrote: > Talking about rings-and-playing, and since we organists do such wonderful > things with our feet, does anyone wear anklets? Thought the coolest would > have been those worn by Hindu dancers, with tens of little jingling bells > attached to each anklet, the bells sounding with the slightest movement of > the foot. Who knows, one day there might be a piece composed "For Organ > and Anklet-bells"?   **************************************************************************** SURVEY OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN OF ORGANISTS www.metronet.com/~organmed/ **************************************************************************** "There is nothing remarkable about it. All one has to do is hit the right notes at the right time, and the instrument plays itself." -- J. S. Bach "We suffer, we suffer, we suffer in silence." -- Fiddler on the Roof ****************************************************************************    
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: Paul Opel <popel@sover.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 09:30:50 -0400   Peter Harrison writes: The electronic duplication, storage and retrieval of published documents is an offence in law both here in the UK as well as in the USA. Placing music on a scanner and making a copy in electronic form is without doubt not a legal activity.   Let us not forget that this thread started with a mention of Passport's CD of the complete Bach keyboard music, which they got from the BGA of 1851. Published music is not necessarily copyright, nor does music have to be published to have copyright protection. There's no copyright violation involved in copying the BGA! Newer editions, quite possibly...   Paul   http://www.sover.net/~popel      
(back) Subject: Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities From: Chong Ten Yeen <art60378@leonis.nus.edu.sg> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 21:31:50 +0800 (SST)   Suspected my last post was a little rambling off-the-topic, sorry.   Ten Yeen     --* I'd rather be a failure at something I love *-- than be a success at something I hate. -George Burns-                
(back) Subject: t&f From: "karl fischer" <karl_der_kaiser@hotmail.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 07:06:28 PST   woo! woo!   tocatta and fugue came in and I picked it up last night!!!!!!!!! :)   It kicks ___ !!! I can do the first couple pages ok, but I need more work...and a full set of pedals   Anyone have hints to playing out of hymnals? I really suck at it, but I hear Catholic masses on the radio and other services where the organ could just as well do a solo cuz that's what they're playing [they also drown out the choir, but the organ is more important..;)] Is is better to play hymns as written w/ or w/o pedals OR is there a better way for organ??   notice the wink after the choir statement   Karl Fischer aka Karl der Kaiser   ps I'm doing a 10 page research paper for my college credit english class on Organs. The assignment is that we do a 10 page research paper on the problems of major or minor field of our choice. I'm considering minoring in organ something.(can't major, cuz my dad said he'd rather see me major in something profitable...and I agree, I guess)   thanks   ______________________________________________________ Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com  
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: Adam Levin <alevin@advance.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 10:08:23 -0500 (EST)   On Thu, 22 Jan 1998, Paul Opel wrote: > Peter Harrison writes: The electronic duplication, storage and > retrieval of published documents is an offence in law both here in the UK as > well as in the USA. Placing music on a scanner and making a copy in electronic > form is without doubt not a legal activity. > > published to have copyright protection. There's no copyright violation > involved in copying the BGA! Newer editions, quite possibly...   Also, duplicating *anything* for your own personal use is *not* illegal, at least not here in the US. It's only if you are duplicating it for others' use or for sale that it is illegal. Otherwise, I wouldn't be able to record my own playing! :)   -Adam   Rutherford, NJ USA Free speech online! _/ http://zen.advance.net/~alevin/________/ "You know," said Windle, <*> __________________________/ "It's a wonderful afterlife." -O /    
(back) Subject: Re: t&f From: "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@stlnet.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 10:01:00 -0600 (CST)   At 07:06 AM 1/22/98 PST, Karl Fischer wrote:   >Anyone have hints to playing out of hymnals? I really suck at it, but I >hear Catholic masses on the radio and other services where the organ >could just as well do a solo cuz that's what they're playing [they also >drown out the choir, but the organ is more important..;)] Is is better >to play hymns as written w/ or w/o pedals OR is there a better way for >organ??   I'm afraid my service accompaniment sucks too, but I have a pretty good idea how I think it *ought* to be done, even if I can't do it that way myself. I certainly enjoy singing with our own organist, who does it extremely well. Remember two things to start with. First, most singers listening for the right pitch can hear the 4' Principal best, so don't accompany all the time on 8' and 4' flutes, which are of rather less determinate pitch than the Principal. Second, it seems to be helpful to basses to be able to hear their line at 16' pitch, so a pedal is useful in hymns *if you can manage it*. If you have such difficulty with the pedals that struggling to play the pedal part is going to mess up the manual part, play on manuals only. The occasional manuals-only verse makes a pleasant change anyhow. Next, do not play too loud and blast everyone out, except perhaps very occasionally. In my experience, however, you do have to play a little louder to get a small congregation singing than you do with a large one. Do not show off, except perhaps very occasionally. We used to have a very fine organist, who has now fortunately gone elsewhere, who used to play wonderful variant harmonies on the unison verses -- so wonderful that everyone used to stop singing and listen to them. This is counter-productive. Our former organist was a fine organ player, but not IMHO a very good musician. There is a difference between the two, and in service accompaniment it is more important to be musical.   >ps I'm doing a 10 page research paper for my college credit english >class on Organs. The assignment is that we do a 10 page research paper >on the problems of major or minor field of our choice. I'm considering >minoring in organ something.(can't major, cuz my dad said he'd rather >see me major in something profitable...and I agree, I guess)   Probably your best bet these days, unless you are world class at the organ, would be to major in something profitable and minor in organ. And yet ... a friend's son recently majored in Math at Harvard and minored in piano. Now, notwithstanding that he got a very good Math degree, he is going to music school. So it might still be possible to change one's mind later anyway.   John.    
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: John Daly <jdaly@palmnet.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 11:09:33 -0500   Adam Levin wrote:   > Also, duplicating *anything* for your own personal use is *not* illegal, > at least not here in the US. It's only if you are duplicating it for > others' use or for sale that it is illegal. I wish this were so but, but I think it is at best a popular myth. I've been looking for several months for a "legal" way to copy out of print sound recordings. In that arena any copy for any purpose without permission is forbidden in the U.S. Unless of course it's done in accordance with equipment and media permitted by the Home Audio Recording Act. The idea is that the price of this specific equipment and media includes a royalty to pay for copies which it is assumed will be made. I haven't run across similar exceptions for printed material. The HARA was the result of a hard fight. An archival backup copy is permitted for software, but not audio material.   As a practical matter, it's unlikely that anyone will go to the trouble of litigating over the odd personal copy.   > Otherwise, I wouldn't be able to record my own playing! :) Unfortunately, depending on what and where you're playing, you may not be able to do so legally. There are performance rights and mechanical rights which may be violated. See bmi's home page for their view on this. I think it's http://www.bmi.com (or maybe org?). They define public performance pretty broadly.   To get something organic in here, playing an organ in a church is probably going to be considered public even if you're just practicing.   Again, who's going to care what you do in the privacy of your own home? I find it frustrating that the politicians, in responding to the needs of the music industry, have made so many seemingly natural and harmless acts criminal -- or at least imposed substantial civil liability. Copyright is supposed to promote useful arts and science. And it is a difficult balancing act between whose rights are to be protected. Someone with a composition in print is certainly going to feel differently than someone who wants to make a copy to facilitate practice. What I'm trying to say is that there's room for lots of different viewpoints as to what the law should be. But we should at least be aware of what the current law is so we know how much trouble we might get ourselves into.   John  
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: PHarri5833 <PHarri5833@aol.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 12:34:03 EST   In a message dated 22/01/98 13:29:36 GMT, popel@sover.net (Paul Opel) writes:   << Published music is not necessarily copyright, nor does music have to be published to have copyright protection. There's no copyright violation involved in copying the BGA! Newer editions, quite possibly... >>   True - so long as you use an old document on which the typographical copyright has lapsed! It is also a long time since I came across something published which did not reserve its copyright!   alevin@advance.net (Adam Levin) added: <<Also, duplicating *anything* for your own personal use is *not* illegal, at least not here in the US>>   Sorry, but I think you need to check that again with your lawyer! The chance of being caught and prosecuted for recording your own playing, even if you do keep the tape, disc or RAMcard to yourself, is probably slight but the risk remains!   The many manifestations of copyright issues ran thru either this list (or was it PIPORG?) some months back and anyone wanting to delve further would probably find a visit to the archives saved us all going over the same issues again.   Peter H.  
(back) Subject: Hymn playing From: kow987@dice.crane.navy.mil (Kenneth O. Woods) Date: Thu, 22 Jan 98 13:24:17 EST   I read with interest your comments about Hymn playing/accomp. I am planning to take the AGO Service Playing exam next cycle and it's interesting to see how they structure the exam. I have played for many years, but have only recently been made aware of how you should phrase your playing in the same manner as you would sing it. Seems so obvious. I do hear complaints about some organists getting over-enthusiatic for the final stanza to the point that the congreation no longer knows what hymn they are supposed to be singing. Part of the exam will require such improvisations, and I hope they won't be listening for anything too extravagant. -- Kenneth O. Woods kow987@dice.crane.navy.mil  
(back) Subject: Re: t&f From: cremona84000@webtv.net (bruce cornely) Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 13:46:19 -0500   Karl, Good advice from your Dad. Major in something that, first and foremost, you enjoy (because you are going to be doing it for a long time), and hopefully something that will give you the financial resources to purchase the organ of your choice to place IN YOUR HOME, so that you can play anything, anyway, anytime. Regarding hymn playing -- there is no ONE way. The AGO has many educational resources in this area. Also consider recorded sessions by Gerre Hancock and others. My only advice is "don't play too loud"; you should always be able to hear the congregation singing, and play so that they have time to breathe and READ what they are singing. Best of luck.   bruce cornely o o o __________ o o o ago (dean) ohs o o __________ o o  
(back) Subject: Rogers Organ Suite From: RSiegel920 <RSiegel920@aol.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 14:23:20 EST   In a message dated 98-01-22 13:49:48 EST, you write: Is anyone aware of a FIRST or THIRD Suite for Organ by James H. Rogers, and if so, who may have published it and is it currently available. Thank you. R. Siegel RSiegel920@AOL.Com   << pipechat@pipechat.org >>  
(back) Subject: Re: pedals on hymns From: ComposerTX <ComposerTX@aol.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 14:25:27 EST   I suggest to my beginning students to begin with one foot on the tonic [1] and one foot on the dominant [5], and to play only the 5-1 and the 1-5 cadences, usually at the end of the phrases. Next, add the sub-dominant [4] to the foot that does the dominant, and so forth, as the student progresses. Make sure the student learns to navigate the pedalboard without looking, using the "cubbyholes" between D# & F# and A# & C# for their toes. This should be "home base" for the feet, and the student should drill herself/himself on these positions. Hope this helps. Danny Ray ComposerTX  
(back) Subject: Re: PipeChat Digest #211 - 01/22/98 From: Bruce Behnke <behnke@isat.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 98 12:34:41 -0000   >For differing opinions, check the writing of Owen Jorgensen (University >of Michigan), author of several definitive books on temperaments, and >Stephen Bicknell's web page on the same:   Not to be a picker of nits but Owen Jorgensen is the piano technician at Michigan STATE University in East Lansing, MI   The following books are sort of available at Amazon books at http://www. amazon.com   Tuning : Containing the Perfection of Eighteenth-Century Temperament, the Lost Art of Nineteenth-Century Temperment and the Science of Equal Temperme by Owen H. Jorgensen List: $69.95 Our Price: $69.95   Availability: This title usually ships within 4-6 weeks. Please note that titles occasionally go out of print or publishers run out of stock. We will notify you within 2-3 weeks if we have trouble obtaining this title.   Hardcover Published by Michigan State Univ Pr Publication date: June 1991 ISBN: 0870132903   The equal-beating temperaments : a handbook for tuning harpsichords and fortepianos, with tuning techniques and tables of fifteen historical temperaments by Owen JorgensenAvailability: This title is out of print, but if you place an order we may be able to find you a used copy within 1-3 months.   Published by Sunbury Press ISBN: 0915548127   Tuning the historical temperaments by ear : a manual of eighty-nine methods for tuning fifty-one scales on the harpsichord, piano, and other keyboard instruments by Owen Jorgensen Availability: This title is out of print, but if you place an order we may be able to find you a used copy within 1-3 months.   Published by Northern Michigan University Press ISBN: 091861600X   Bruce (class of 72)  
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: Mac Hayes <mach37@ptw.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 13:24:40 -0800   John Daly wrote: > ... > To get something organic in here, playing an organ in a church > is probably going to be considered public even if you're just > practicing. > ...   I just got back from reading the BMI web page http://www.bmi.com/toolbox/songcrgt.html and I get the impression that if there is no audience there is no "performance." The following excerpt (am I guilty of copyright infringement for including it here?) is of explanatory material from that web page:   "... Such royalties go to both the composer and publisher through their performing rights organization, which grants licenses to perform the music in their respective repertoires to thousands of music users, such as broadcasting stations, hotels, clubs, colleges, restaurants, stores, etc."   I think it is reasonably clear that an audience is implied, if not required. Also, it seems the "law" is so broad and general that it would take litigation to determine if an infringement had ocurred, and that unless a good likelihood of recovering substantial $$$ exists, a performer is unlikely to be taken to court, especially for practicing in a church.   Glenda, do you have any comment on this?   -- Mac Hayes mach37@ptw.com Notary Sojac    
(back) Subject: Re:SANFILIPPO COLLECTION BROCHURES From: Robert Ridgeway <ridgeway@ais.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 15:40:18 -0600   At 07:50 AM 1/22/98 -0500, you wrote: > >Robert... > >Could you tell us where we could order current recordings on the Sanfilippo >4/80......is it the same place and how much are they postpaid??? > >Thanks. > >Steve LaManna > > > >"Pipe Up and Be Heard!" >PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics >HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org >List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org >Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org >Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org > > >No, Steve....it is a FIVE/80!! You can order the CD's directly from Musical Contrasts whose address is:   MUSICAL CONTRASTS P.O. Box 16786 Phoenix, AZ 85011   e-mail <musicon@swlink.net>  
(back) Subject: Re: t&f From: Kevin Cartwright <kevin1@alaweb.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 15:53:55 -0600   karl fischer wrote: > > woo! woo! > > tocatta and fugue came in and I picked it up last night!!!!!!!!! :) > > It kicks ___ !!! I can do the first couple pages ok, but I need more > work...and a full set of pedals   That sounds like me the day I got it. Most of it is easier than it looks, but some of it is just as hard as it looks. I can play the entire Tocatta, but the latter part of the Fugue is what gets me. That's where everything gets as hard as it looks.   > minoring in organ something.(can't major, cuz my dad said he'd rather > see me major in something profitable...and I agree, I guess)   Have you considered the field of organ maintainence? That seems to be looking good in my area these days.   Anyway, until next time,   Kevin Cartwright Greenville, AL kevin1@alaweb.com  
(back) Subject: Re: RINGS AND PLAYING... some possibilities From: Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 17:31:35 -0500 (EST)   I wear a high school class ring most of the time (won't after this year, though). I usually take it off, and used to put it on the console before I played, but after leaving it too many places, I started putting it in my pocket. When I play, it flips around on my finger and obstructs the movement of my joint. I forgot at church one time, and it was in the middle of the opening hymn when I realized I was still wearing it. It came off before the chanting started (fun, huh?).   _____ | |_____ | || |_____ |Stephen || |_____ ______|F.P. Karr| || |_____ ______ |o o || || || || || |_____ | o o| | o o||Student Organist || || |_____ |o o | |o o || || || || || || || | | o o| | o o||Organist and Director of Music, | |o o | |o o || Bethlehem Lutheran Church|| | | o o| | o o|| || || || || || || | |o o | |o o || Aiken, SC || || || || | | o o| | o o| \ / \ / \U/ \S/ \A/ \ / \ / |o o | |o o | V V V V V V V | o o| | o o|_____________________________________|o o | |o o || E E | E E E | E E | E E E | E E | || o o| | o o||_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_||o o |    
(back) Subject: Re: MIDI vs copyright From: RSiegel920 <RSiegel920@aol.com> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 17:22:12 EST   Section 106 (4) of the 1976 copyright act grants exclusive rights to the copyright owner for public peformances of copyright-protected works. However, section 110(3) grants a general exception for religious services. Section 110(4) grants an exception in the case of a "performance....without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage and without any payment to any of its peformers, promoters, or organizers if (A) there is no direct admission charge; or (B) the .....[net profits] ....are used exclusively for education, religious, or charitable purposes and not for financial gain, except where the copyright owner has served notice of objection to the performance.... " Note: please check with your personal attorney regarding the application of this statute. This information is not given as nor should it be treated as legal advice but rather as general information. A good reference regarding the entire question of the business and legal uses of music is This Business of Music by Shemel & Krasilovsky, Billboard Books, New York, latest edition is 1976. Hope this helps.  
(back) Subject: Re: t&f From: Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 17:45:12 -0500 (EST)   >That sounds like me the day I got it. Most of it is easier than it >looks, but some of it is just as hard as it looks. I can play the >entire Toccata, but the latter part of the Fugue is what gets me. >That's where everything gets as hard as it looks.   I know that feeling. I was so excited the day my mom offered to buy the piece for me at a music store (Pecknel in Greenville). I immediately began to play the Toccata, and got it down OK (not perfect, like the prestissimo part with the triplets, right before the pedal solo). I played through the fugue so much, it was bad, and when I began to study it with my teacher, there were myriad problems to correct. It was hard work, and he reminded me once in a while that I really would not be playing that piece if I hadn't already started it. It was very rewarding that day in January (has it been a year already?!?!?) that he told me, "I think we're finished with this." I ws so happy, I bounced off walls for the next week. Now I'm using it for college auditions, and it's a good show-off piece (so is the Mendelssohn, but that came later).   >minoring in organ something.(can't major, cuz my dad said he'd rather >see me major in something profitable...and I agree, I guess)   RE this: All you organ majors out there, how much trouble did you have from your parents when you decided to take this track? Mine are great. They are very supportive of my aspirations to be a pro.   _____ | |_____ | || |_____ |Stephen || |_____ ______|F.P. Karr| || |_____ ______ |o o || || || || || |_____ | o o| | o o||Student Organist || || |_____ |o o | |o o || || || || || || || | | o o| | o o||Organist and Director of Music, | |o o | |o o || Bethlehem Lutheran Church|| | | o o| | o o|| || || || || || || | |o o | |o o || Aiken, SC || || || || | | o o| | o o| \ / \ / \U/ \S/ \A/ \ / \ / |o o | |o o | V V V V V V V | o o| | o o|_____________________________________|o o | |o o || E E | E E E | E E | E E E | E E | || o o| | o o||_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_||o o |    
(back) Subject: Re: pedals on hymns From: Stephen F P Karr <karrlist@scescape.net> Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 17:48:00 -0500 (EST)   >Make sure the student learns to navigate the pedalboard without looking...   Why? I think it's healthy to look once in a while. I've attended numerous recitals (by Keith Shafer, Matt Curlee, and Gerre Hancock to name a few) where the recitalist made extensive use of his ability to look at his feet. I find it helpful just before hard passages, or big jumps to make sure that I have them situated in the right place. There is too much else to worry about, in my opinion, to have to fret over not looking down.   _____ | |_____ | || |_____ |Stephen || |_____ ______|F.P. Karr| || |_____ ______ |o o || || || || || |_____ | o o| | o o||Student Organist || || |_____ |o o | |o o || || || || || || || | | o o| | o o||Organist and Director of Music, | |o o | |o o || Bethlehem Lutheran Church|| | | o o| | o o|| || || || || || || | |o o | |o o || Aiken, SC || || || || | | o o| | o o| \ / \ / \U/ \S/ \A/ \ / \ / |o o | |o o | V V V V V V V | o o| | o o|_____________________________________|o o | |o o || E E | E E E | E E | E E E | E E | || o o| | o o||_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_||o o |