PipeChat Digest #1610 - Sunday, October 8, 2000
 
Re: Interested Essay Question
  by <support@opensystemsorgans.com>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by <TRACKELECT@cs.com>
possible new member
  by "Carlo Pietroniro" <concert_organist@hotmail.com>
Fox vs. Biggs, was observation
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by <DudelK@aol.com>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by <quilisma@socal.rr.com>
Re: Fw: Observation! Kraft CDs
  by <MickBerg@aol.com>
service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA
  by <quilisma@socal.rr.com>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
Re: Fw: Observation!
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA
  by <quilisma@socal.rr.com>
Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA
  by "Shirley" <pnst@earthlink.net>
Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA
  by "TommyLee Whitlock" <tommylee@whitlock.org>
Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation
  by "Robert Ehrhardt" <r_ehrh@bellsouth.net>
Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation
  by "VEAGUE" <dutchorgan@svs.net>
Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation
  by "Ben Baldus" <bbaldus@voyager.net>
Flynn Theatre (Burl, VT) ... organ still vanished!
  by "M. Hackett" <mikehack@u.washington.edu>
OT: RCA vs. CBS, Sarnoff vs. Paley, was Fox vs. Biggs
  by "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net>
 


(back) Subject: Re: Interested Essay Question From: <support@opensystemsorgans.com> Date: 8 Oct 2000 07:43:48 -0700   On Sat, 07 October 2000, Douglas A Campbell wrote:   > > > John, > > How do you get a 2'Octave from a 2' Mixture ?? Doesn't the mixture = have > breaks ????   Some of the mixtures on this instrument break, and some don't, but each of = the three has a "rank" that can be selected individually. The ones that = break just do so cleverly, so the additional stop comes from pieces of = different ranks.   Dick Meckstroth      
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 08:36:59   At 04:08 PM 10/7/2000 -0700, Bdu-by-the-beach wrote: >Unfortunately, later in his career, those "perfect" takes were edited >splicings, as he had severe arthritis.<snip>   Yup. Hate to spoil everyone's fun, but Bud's correct. Anyone that's don= e analog tape editing is able to pick out the edits after a couple of critical listenings. This started happening during the later installment= s of the "Bach Organ Favorites" series in the early '70s. The edits are skilfully done, but, at times, something will sound a little "off" on the attack of a certain note...a sure clue to the possibility of an edit. Prior to that, Biggs was indeed, like Sinatra, a "one-take" artist. Even with the arthritic hands (I'd also be willing to bet he had problems with Carpel Tunnel Syndrome, then an unknown ailment), he was a formidable recording performer with a prodigeous output. I seem to think Biggs was = in his prime at the St. Thomas M=F6ller for the "French Organ Festival" LP i= n 1962. Biggs' early forays to Europe to record various Silbermanns and Schnitgers were unprecidented, made possible by the introduction of the Ampex 350 in 1950. Biggs was a stickler for good recording technique (as was the Masterworks Division of Columbia at the time, thanks to William S. Paley's commitment to improving recorded sound), and we're left with some truly outstanding recordings. Both Biggsie and Columbia are gone now, wit= h no one and nothing to take their respective high places.   DeserTBoB  
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: <TRACKELECT@cs.com> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 12:51:36 EDT   In a message dated 10/8/00 12:01:52 PM Eastern Daylight Time, desertbob@rglobal.net writes:   << Biggs' early forays to Europe to record various Silbermanns and Schnitgers were unprecidented >>   This reminds me of the Walter Kraft 18 record set of the complete works of =   Bach. This must have been some project, tramping all over Europe. Does = anyone know if these recordings have been re mastered to CD. The pressings that I =   had were down right lousy. Kraft seemed to play well although a bit fast = for my taste. He played some famous instruments as well as some not so famous = but interesting ones as well.   Alan B  
(back) Subject: possible new member From: "Carlo Pietroniro" <concert_organist@hotmail.com> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 13:36:02 -0400   after months of begging, I finally convinced Rachel Laurin to join "the other list". For those of you who are not familiar with her, she's one of Montreal's finest organists, who plays at St. Joseph's Orratory. Maybe I = can convince her to join this list as well.   Carlo  
(back) Subject: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 10:52:29   At 09:26 PM 10/7/2000 -0400, you wrote: >Y E S ! ! ! ! ! >Get yourself a copy of the "Fox Touch" recordings by Virgil made via >"Direct to Disk" at the Garden Grove Community Church<snip>   To me, Fox was a technical "slob" compared to Biggs' penchant for precisi= on and scholastic approach to interpretation. On the other hand, Fox could punch more pistons in a second than most players can press keys! Both ha= d their admirers and detractors, and served as opposite ends of an "organ spectrum" back in their heydey. Some of my favorite Fox "faux pas" were his penchant for hanging on to the final pedal note after the manuals had disappeared, his infamous "chord smear" in "Grand Piece Symphonique", usa= ge of c=E9l=E8stes and other Romantic registrations for Bach, an omnipresent groaning 32' in EVERYTHING, and the infamously ridiculous tempii of the Toccata from Widor's Fifth. Another memorable "Foxism" was during the 19= 59 EMI recording of the fabulous Jongen "Symphonie Concertante", where the organ's entrance in the first movement leaves the listener with the impression that Fox has just blown the entire orchestra out the doors of the Trocadero. Fox was known to do this in live performance, also.   On Biggs' side, we have dry, dry, DRY interpretations, possibly more suitable for the Baroque, but decidedly a bit "retentive" in the Romantic. The 1962 French album's rendition of Alain's "Litanies" proved he could "loosen up" enough when he wanted to...which wasn't very often! His Fran= ck was always as dry as some wines from Provence, although always precisely rendered, and with exacting registrations...if perhaps with too much upperwork here and there. Biggs' penchant for "TrackerMania" spilled ove= r into places where it probably shouldn't have. His pedal harpsichord stuf= f is almost as annoying as Beethoven played on West Highlands bagpipes, and= I find those LPs to be favorites for skeet shooting or Frisbee practice. T= he Joplin release is humorous...in small doses.   I have nearly complete archives of recordings from both performers, and must say I do enjoy both immensely. In a sentence, I'd have to classify them as such: Fox, the consummate showman and self-promoting "Liberace o= f the organ", and Biggs, the curmudgeonly professional artist and tireless organ scholar and promoter. Both, as sales show, had their admirers; I tend to admire both.   Telling is what happened with Fox after the 1951 "Organ Reveries" release on Columbia, one of the VERY few recordings of the poorly laid-out 1930 Hook and Hastings organ before it was stirred up into a success by G. Donald Harrison in 1953-55. Columbia agreed to a one album deal with Fox= , with a possible future long term contract. Biggs had already "made his bones" at Columbia back in the days of 78s, and had been on their vaunted "Masterworks" roster for some time. Fox wanted equal billing, something the snooty Masterworks people would never allow, as much of the organ "elite" at the time considered Fox to be something of a "Jerry Lewis at a console", and Biggs certainly didn't want him around.   Columbia flatly replied that any further Fox releases would continue to b= e on the popular "red label", not the coveted "Masterworks" grey label. Incensed, Fox refused further negotiation with Columbia and headed over t= o RCA, whose "Red Label" classic catalog, lacking the stature and technical excellence of Columbia, needed as many "name" artists as it could get. T= he resulting releases of the fresh =C6olian-Skinner rebuild that resulted we= re poorly recorded, unfortunately, with poor microphone placement adding to the acoustic woes of the "Rockefeller church". Fox jumped labels again i= n 1958, going to Capitol, and then came the famous sessions on Enoch Light'= s superlative Command label, using 35mm film magnetic soundtracks. Fox bailed from Command when it was acquired by ABC/Paramount, and pretty muc= h acted as a "free agent" until his death, doing the insufferable "Heavy Organ" series for RCA and a host of audiophile projects for small independents. The Helden release on his home organ is quite interesting indeed.   Biggs never strayed from Columbia, giving his recorded output somewhat of= a predictability, whereas Fox was all over the map. Telling, also, of Fox'= s attitude towards Biggs was his indirect public berating of him during one of the recorded "Heavy Organ" performances, whereupon he decried keeping Bach "locked up on some museum", an obvious reference to Busch-Reisinger'= s Flentrop, which Fox was never able to play, and we all KNOW who DID play it! Biggs, on the other hand, was more typically English in his reponses about Fox...he'd usually simply roll his eyes and issue a subdued "harump= h"!   DeserTBoB  
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: <DudelK@aol.com> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 15:35:22 EDT   In a message dated 10/8/00 12:02:30 PM Eastern Daylight Time,=20 desertbob@rglobal.net writes:   << St. Thomas M=F6ller >> Oy vey . . . I think you mean the St. George's Moller!   DudelK =20 Washington, DC  
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: <quilisma@socal.rr.com> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 12:44:46 -0700   I WELL remember what a revelation it was to hear the sound of the = Schnitger at Zwolle.   Cheers,   Bud   TRACKELECT@cs.com wrote:   > In a message dated 10/8/00 12:01:52 PM Eastern Daylight Time, > desertbob@rglobal.net writes: > > << Biggs' early forays to Europe to record various Silbermanns and > Schnitgers were unprecidented >> > > This reminds me of the Walter Kraft 18 record set of the complete works = of > Bach. This must have been some project, tramping all over Europe. Does = anyone > know if these recordings have been re mastered to CD. The pressings that = I > had were down right lousy. Kraft seemed to play well although a bit fast = for > my taste. He played some famous instruments as well as some not so = famous but > interesting ones as well. > > Alan B > > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org > Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org    
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! Kraft CDs From: <MickBerg@aol.com> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 16:17:07 EDT   I have two CD's from Kraft's recording. It's called Organ Music Vol 1, VoxBox2, CDX 5059. It just seems to be a random selection . The recordings =   have obviously been doctored a lot, but I like them. I don't think any = other part of Kraft's recording has been remastered to CD. Mick Berg.  
(back) Subject: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA From: <quilisma@socal.rr.com> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 13:19:50 -0700   16th Sunday after Trinity Solemn High Mass and Holy Baptism at 10:30 a.m.   Voluntary - Sheep May Safely Graze - Bach Processional - O Jesus Christ, Thou Lord Most Dear - St. Catherine Introit - Miserere - English Gradual Kyrie - Missa Marialis - Gregorian Gloria - Scottish Chant Gradual - Timebunt gentes - English Gradual Alleluia - Cantate Domino - English Gradual Solo - Suffer the Little Children - Hausmann Doxology - Old Hundredth Sanctus/Benedictus - Willan Amen - Robinson in D Major Agnus - Willan Communion - Domine, memorabor - Griesbacher Communion Hymns (on the piano, gospel-style) 1 - Children of the Heavenly Father - Tryggare kan ingen vara 2 - 'Tis So Sweet to Trust in Jesus - Trust in Jesus 3 - Jesus Loves Me - Jesus Loves Me Recessional - All Things Bright and Beautiful - Royal Oak Orison - Day By Day - Sumner Voluntary - "Little" Prelude and Fugue in F Major - Bach   Three-hankie service ... after FIVE verses of "Jesus Loves Me", the Blue-Hair Brigade was in PUDDLES (grin). And the soprano outdid herself on the Hausmann ... FORMIDABLE Victorian trash (grin).   They actually sang the Missa Marialis Kyrie antiphonally like they're supposed to ... I'll introduce the Agnus in November, and then finally the Sanctus in December; then we'll stick with it THIS time until they GET it (grin).   Absolutely FULL church ... have NO idea how we're going to fit into the new interim space ... it will only seat 60; we had over a hundred at High Mass this morning. I see three Masses looming on the horizon.   Cheers,   Bud    
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 13:04:40   At 03:35 PM 10/8/2000 EDT, you wrote: >Oy vey . . . I think you mean the St. George's Moller!<snip>   Duh...saw that after I sent it. Oh well...one big Noo Yawk barn's just like another, right??   Far to westerly to remember anything about Noo Yawk,   DeserTBoB  
(back) Subject: Re: Fw: Observation! From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 13:31:22   At 12:44 PM 10/8/2000 -0700, TRACKELECT@cs.com wrote: >This reminds me of the Walter Kraft 18 record set of the complete works = of >> Bach. This must have been some project, tramping all over Europe. Does anyone >> know if these recordings have been re mastered to CD. The pressings th= at I >> had were down right lousy.<snip>   This Vox set resurfaced for a brief time in the early '80s, marketed by o= ne "Murray Hill Records". The whole project, ambitious as it was, was plagu= ed by poor recording techniques and equipment, and the Murray Hill pressings weren't too much better than the garbage passed off by Vox in the '60s. This is a good set to have, however, as just about EVERYTHING is there fo= r reference. The reissue also had a copy of the original Vox booklet, whic= h contains much useful historical information, illustrating the English penchant for detail.   >Kraft seemed to play well although a bit fast for my taste. He played so= me >famous instruments as well as some not so famous but interesting ones >a= s well.<snip>   Kraft's renditions were considered to be academically quite correct back = in those days, although some of his registrations could be a bit off the wal= l to many tastes. Tierce-crowned solo synthetics seemed to be a forte of his. His approach was somewhat dry, but logical. One has to wade throug= h the horrid tape wow and flutter problems and tape hiss, as well as margin= al pressings, to hear them, however, something that CD spoiled ears these da= ys are wont to do. Suffice it to say that Kraft's ramblings through Europe weren't as financially and technically well-heeled as Biggs' jaunts for Columbia, where he proved the superiority of oscillator-driven Ampex 350 transports using then-unreliable European AC current.   Short-term frequency stability of electric power in parts of Continental Europe lagged the US by decades, driving users of sychronous motored tape transports and Hammond organs to distraction well into the 1960s. This w= as arguably proof of the damage inflicted by Allied bombing and sabotage rai= ds on Nazi territory during World War II, when much of Germany's hydroelectr= ic system was heavily damaged. Columbia and Ampex knew this, and developed = an ultra-stable 60 Hz power supply to use with Columbia's Ampexes "on the road". Kraft's recordings, however, sound as if they were plugged into t= he wall using an ancient Philips in need of some work, at 7=BD IPS, to boot!   Copies of the Kraft compendium have surfaced recently on eBay, both in th= e original Vox and the Murray Hill versions. Prices are quite reasonable, attesting to their known mediocre sonic qualities. However, I'd recommen= d this collection, if not for aural prowess, for reference material. Heari= ng the obvious dismal quality of the original masters, however, I wouldn't b= e looking for a major CD reissue very soon, although I'd believe it to be a worthwhile, if not economically feasbile, undertaking.   DeserTBoB  
(back) Subject: Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 13:45:44   At 01:19 PM 10/8/2000 -0700, Bud-by-the-beach of St. Matt's-in-the-Semitrailer wrote: >Three-hankie service ... after FIVE verses of "Jesus Loves Me", the >Blue-Hair Brigade was in PUDDLES (grin).<snip>   Geez...keep THIS up and you might be able to land a spot on TBN! Think of the dollars from the trailer trashers!   >Absolutely FULL church ... have NO idea how we're going to fit into the >new interim space ... it will only seat 60; we had over a hundred at >High Mass this morning. I see three Masses looming on the horizon.<snip>   Well, since they purport to be "catholics" of some stripe, you can always fall back on the time-honored RC tradition of "assembly line grace", wherein masses are scheduled in marathon fashion, with those arriving colliding with those leaving in the vestibule, and a continual = "destruction derby" going on in the parking lot! <snarf snarf>   dB  
(back) Subject: Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA From: <quilisma@socal.rr.com> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 13:57:16 -0700   Bob, you are BAD to the BONE (grin).   Cheers,   Bud   Bob Scarborough wrote:   > At 01:19 PM 10/8/2000 -0700, Bud-by-the-beach of St. > Matt's-in-the-Semitrailer wrote: > >Three-hankie service ... after FIVE verses of "Jesus Loves Me", the > >Blue-Hair Brigade was in PUDDLES (grin).<snip> > > Geez...keep THIS up and you might be able to land a spot on TBN! Think = of > the dollars from the trailer trashers! > > >Absolutely FULL church ... have NO idea how we're going to fit into the > >new interim space ... it will only seat 60; we had over a hundred at > >High Mass this morning. I see three Masses looming on the = horizon.<snip> > > Well, since they purport to be "catholics" of some stripe, you can = always > fall back on the time-honored RC tradition of "assembly line grace", > wherein masses are scheduled in marathon fashion, with those arriving > colliding with those leaving in the vestibule, and a continual = "destruction > derby" going on in the parking lot! <snarf snarf> > > dB > > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org > Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org    
(back) Subject: Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA From: "Shirley" <pnst@earthlink.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 17:02:47 -0400   At 01:45 PM 10/08/2000, you wrote: >Well, since they purport to be "catholics" of some stripe, you can always >fall back on the time-honored RC tradition of "assembly line grace", >wherein masses are scheduled in marathon fashion, with those arriving >colliding with those leaving in the vestibule, and a continual = "destruction >derby" going on in the parking lot! <snarf snarf> > >dB     Hey, it's not just the RC's.... I know of one Lutheran church that has = four services every Sunday.... 15 minutes between! What a zoo!   --Shirley  
(back) Subject: Re: service list - St. Matthew's, Newport Beach CA USA From: "TommyLee Whitlock" <tommylee@whitlock.org> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 17:22:44 -0400   > Bob, you are BAD to the BONE (grin). > Cheers, > Bud   But Bud, that's why we like him! Cheers, TommyLee    
(back) Subject: Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation From: "Robert Ehrhardt" <r_ehrh@bellsouth.net> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 16:38:16 -0500     ----- Original Message ----- From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> To: "PipeChat" <pipechat@pipechat.org> Sent: Sunday, October 08, 2000 10:52 AM Subject: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation     At 09:26 PM 10/7/2000 -0400, you wrote: >> Biggs never strayed from Columbia, [snip]   .... after he left RCA Victor, of course, where Fox from the late '30's. (Speaking of which, have any of you heard Biggs' recording of the Sowerby Symphony in G Major, which he recorded for RCA, at Harvard Memorial Church, if I remember correctly.)   I'll take issue with your comment about RCA's stable of artists; they only had the likes of Rachmaninoff, Horowitz, Rubenstein, Heifetz, Piatagorsky, Koussevitsky, Toscanini, Reiner, Stokowski, Ormandy, orchestras such as Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and NBC, not to mention a fairly impressive roster of vocal artists going back to Caruso. I think they held their own against Columbia.   Robert Ehrhardt        
(back) Subject: Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation From: "VEAGUE" <dutchorgan@svs.net> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 16:48:47 -0500   Dear DesertBS...quite humerous anecdotes of Mr. B. and His Highness the = Fox. Jolly good!   Rick      
(back) Subject: Re: Fox vs. Biggs, was observation From: "Ben Baldus" <bbaldus@voyager.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 17:51:58 -0400   Due to the crystal clarity of the desert sunshine desertBob seems to know everything about everything--whether it's true or not. Here I reference = the Biggs and Fox stuff.   Ben Baldus   VEAGUE wrote:   > Dear DesertBS...quite humerous anecdotes of Mr. B. and His Highness the = Fox. > Jolly good! > > Rick > > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org > Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org    
(back) Subject: Flynn Theatre (Burl, VT) ... organ still vanished! From: "M. Hackett" <mikehack@u.washington.edu> Date: Sun, 8 Oct 2000 15:18:06 -0700 (PDT)     I believe I posted to the theatre organ list asking about the fate of the Burl, VT USA ... Flynn Theatre Organ.   Does anyone have any clues as to its fate?   =3D=3D=3D   Hello, I was intrigued with your comment about the Burlington Vt. Flynn Organ being in the Boston area. We live just a few miles from Burlington and I spent some time tracking this organ to no avail. The last entry from the Judd Walton book had it in a "convent" and lots of letters and research turned up nothing. There was another tip that parts of the Flynn organ were in the Oriental Theater in Canton, Ma. Again, nothing panned out.   Soooooo I'm curious! Can you help to fill in any holes about what happened to the Flynn organ? It's interesting that they're restoring the theater as a performing arts space but haven't been too interested in getting an organ reinstalled.   Thanks in advance for any information that you can provide.        
(back) Subject: OT: RCA vs. CBS, Sarnoff vs. Paley, was Fox vs. Biggs From: "Bob Scarborough" <desertbob@rglobal.net> Date: Sun, 08 Oct 2000 15:56:56   At 04:38 PM 10/8/2000 -0500, you wrote: >I'll take issue with your comment about RCA's stable of artists; they = only >had the likes of >Rachmaninoff, Horowitz, Rubenstein<snipping a laundry list of early 20th century immortals>   All past glories by the time the fateful day came in 1948 when Columbia launched the LP and simultaneously started raiding RCA's "Red Seal" roster in earnest. Just one notable defection: Ormandy AND the Philadelphia, = who went on to smash sales records while with Columbia. By the late '50s, Columbia had completely outrun RCA in the classical sales arena. I also have a postwar Columbia 78 album of Stokowski with the New York Phil., proof that Columbia was "fattening up" their roster in anticipation of the LP and the "hi-fi" boom that was to shortly follow.   Paley was a smart guy. He wisely stayed out of the expensive and comparatively unprofitable frey between AT&T and RCA for dominance in the motion picture sound and broadcasting equipment businesses, preferring to cede that and Sarnoff's baby, the infant television development business, to RCA. CBS Labs had developed color television as early as 1932 with their mechanical system (and lost a ton of money on it) and Paley wasn't about to throw more money into an unsure thing. His Columbia Records division proved itself a worthy competitor in the record business during the big band years, and Paley knew of postwar developments in the area of home audio equipment being made by Jensen, Electro-Voice, Paul Klipsch, Avery Fisher, Marantz, and other pioneers. He foresaw complete domination of the recorded sound industry, which CBS eventually attained in its conglomerate Music Division by the 1970's. This was an early goal of the pernicious AT&T early on, but was bungled due to typical mismanagement, capped off by the punitive "Cobraphone" consent decree of 1956, which eventually forced the divestiture of Western Electric's movie sound and audio recording equipment businesses to Litton Industries under the name "Westrex".   Almost everything in pop music...the musicians' Fender guitars and amps, the keyboard players' Leslie speakers, the records, the home playback equipment...was sold by CBS by that time, especially on the West Coast, where CBS's Pacific Stereo sold more house brand component systems than other competitors combined. The fattening of the Masterworks roster in = the late '40s-early '50s was just one step toward the goal of "vertical integration" in the music business, and it worked brilliantly. RCA was left in the dust with its useless (except for singles) 45, and had to pay royalties to Paley for every early LP they sold. RCA didn't care, as they had almost complete domination of the radio and television broadcast equipment business...and later, they had Elvis Presley. Paley, who chafed at having to pay anything to archrival RCA, refused to buy their cameras and systems during the color conversion years, and brought in Philips to build and supply NTSC color cameras for them.   Interestingly, CBS also owned Rodgers Organs for awhile, which gave stiff competition to Jerry Markowitz' Allen. I tend to believe it was the brisk competition and crafty engineering at Rodgers that propelled the Markowitzes into taking the digital plunge in the late '60s, knowing that there would be short-term sales losses, but long-term gains. That = decision has since proved itself to be a correct one. CBS did well in the short-term with Rodgers while Allen fiddled with thier new Rockwell = system, but dumped it, along with the entire non-recording music industry, after Paley began to distance himself from direct corporate decision-making. Once Paley departed, the slow crumbling of a mighty empire began, and his crown jewel, the CBS Networks, are now owned by Westinghouse as a = corporate response to GE's absorption of RCA. RCA eventually went down the tubes after Sarnoff left also, finally being swallowed up by GE, who sells the RCA nameplate to be placed on mediocre asian TV sets and VCRs. AT&T, after decades of mismanagement and more recent deprivation of the public trough, is ready to crumble, possibly as takeover bait for the Japanese, who have long coveted it as a "trophy".   DeserTBoB