PipeChat Digest #2524 - Friday, November 30, 2001
 
Re: mixtures (long)
  by "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com>
Re: A Little Holiday Article
  by <DudelK@aol.com>
Re: Mixtures
  by <Cremona502@cs.com>
Re: Wow!  It's Christmas already!
  by <Cremona502@cs.com>
CHARLOTTE, NC EVENSONG FOR ADVENT
  by <ScottFop@aol.com>
 

(back) Subject: Re: mixtures (long) From: "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com> Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 20:45:21 -0600   This is a multi-part message in MIME format.   ------=3D_NextPart_000_00C2_01C17916.C3204D40 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable   Mixtures 101:   There are upper limits to the pitches the human ear can hear, and there = =3D are limits to how small and high pitched it is possible to make organ =3D pipes. Carried up to the top of a standard organ keyboard of five =3D octaves (61 notes), about the smallest pipe it is possible to make is =3D the top note of a 1' stop, although in most cases organbuilders do not =3D go any further up than the top of a 2' stop. =3D20   Nevertheless, most organs need to have bright stops at pitches above 2'. = =3D In these cases it is normal to break the stop back. A 1.1/3' Larigot, = =3D for example, might go up to the c or even the g below the top of the =3D keyboard at 1.1/3' pitch, and then jump down an octave to 2.2/3' pitch. = =3D When this happens, it is known as a "break."   With the small principal stops at 1.1/3', 1'. 2/3', etc., pitch., it is = =3D usual to group 2 or 3 or 4 or more ranks together as one stop, making a = =3D 2, 3, 4 or more rank Mixture. Such stops need to be high-pitched at the = =3D bass of the keyboard and lower pitched at the treble end, adding =3D briliance in the bass and richness in the treble. In such cases not =3D just one break an octave or so from the top, but several breaks at =3D intervals in the compass are required. It is usual (although by no =3D means universal) for each rank to break back a fifth at each break.   Thus, for example, a typical four-rank mixture might start at low C with = =3D its four ranks 1.1/3', 1', 2/3' and 1/2' pitches.   An octave higher at tenor C it might become 2', 1.1/3', 1'. 2/3'.   At middle C it might break again to 2.2/3', 2', 1.1/3'. 1'.   An octave higher at treble C it might then become 4', 2.2/3', 2', =3D 1.1/3',   And for the highest octave it might become, 5.1/3', 4', 2.2/3', 2'. =3D EXCEPT (as several people have pointed out) that 5.1/3' belongs to the =3D 16' harmonic series, and many people think this should be avoided. =3D Therefore one might make this octave 8', 4', 2.2/3', 2' or (if one is an = =3D idiot with no notion of the problems duplicated pitches create for =3D tuning) 4', 2.2/3', 2', 2'.=3D20   In order to understand the overall concept of a mixture, one has first, = =3D of course to understand that all these pitches are part of the harmonic = =3D series -- the natural overtones that all pipes possess and which organ =3D stops above 8' pitch are intended to reinforce.   Thus unison pitch, the same as a piano, is 8' pitch.   The second harmonic (or first overtone) is 8/2' pitch, or 4' pitch, and = =3D plays an octave higher.   The third harmonic is 8/3' pitch, or 2.2/3' pitch, and plays a fifth =3D higher than that.   The fourth harmonic is 8/4' pitch, or 2' pitch, and plays two octaves =3D above unison.   The fifth harmonic is 8/5' pitch, or 1.3/5' pitch, and plays a third =3D above that.=3D20   The sixth harmonic is 8/6' pitch, or 1.1/3' pitch, and plays two octaves = =3D and a fifth above unison pitch.   The seventh harmonic is 8/7' pitch, or 1.1/7' pitch, and plays two =3D octaves and a diminished seventh above unison pitch, and so on.   Normal quint mixtures only make use of the harmonics play octaves or =3D fifths,   i.e. 8/1, 8/2, 8/3, 8/4, 8/6, 8/8, 8/12, 8/16, etc.   Another way of describing these is to count the number of white notes =3D above the unison the pipe plays.   Thus an 8' stop, unison, is a first (1)   A 4' stop, and octave, is an eighth (8)   A 2.2/3' stop, an octave quint, is a twelfth (12)   A 2' stop, a super octave, two octaves above unison, is a fifteenth (15)   A 1.1/3' stop, two octaves and a fifth above unison, is a nineteenth =3D (19) and so on.   Thus the four rank mixture mentioned above might also be written out:   C 19-22-26-29 c 15-19-22-26 c1 12-15-19-22 c2 8-12-15-19 c3 5-8-12-15 or 1-8-12-15 or 8-12-15-15   In the case of, say, a three rank mixture starting at 2', 1.1/3', 1' not = =3D so many breaks would be required, and one might design something like this:   C 15-19-22 f 12-15-19 f2 8-12-15   I hope this helps a bit.   John Speller   ------=3D_NextPart_000_00C2_01C17916.C3204D40 Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable   <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML><HEAD> <META content=3D3D"text/html; charset=3D3Dwindows-1252" =3D http-equiv=3D3DContent-Type> <META content=3D3D"MSHTML 5.00.2919.6307" name=3D3DGENERATOR> <STYLE></STYLE> </HEAD> <BODY bgColor=3D3D#ffffff> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Mixtures 101:</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>There are upper limits&nbsp;to the = =3D pitches the=3D20 human ear can hear, and there are limits to how small and high pitched =3D it is=3D20 possible to make organ pipes.&nbsp; Carried up to the top of a standard = =3D organ=3D20 keyboard of five octaves (61 notes), about the smallest pipe it is =3D possible to=3D20 make is the top note of a 1' stop, although in most cases organbuilders = =3D do not=3D20 go any further up than the top of a 2' stop.&nbsp; </FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Nevertheless, most organs need to = have =3D bright stops=3D20 at pitches above 2'.&nbsp; In these cases it is normal to break the stop = =3D   back.&nbsp;&nbsp;A 1.1/3' Larigot, for example, might go up to the c or = =3D even the=3D20 g below the top of the keyboard at 1.1/3' pitch, and then jump down an =3D octave to=3D20 2.2/3' pitch.&nbsp; When this happens, it is known as a =3D "break."</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>With the small principal stops at =3D 1.1/3', 1'. 2/3',=3D20 etc., pitch., it is usual to group 2 or 3 or 4 or more ranks together as = =3D one=3D20 stop, making a 2, 3, 4 or more rank Mixture.&nbsp; Such stops need to be = =3D   high-pitched at the bass of the keyboard and lower pitched at the treble = =3D end,=3D20 adding briliance in the bass and richness in the treble.&nbsp; In such =3D cases not=3D20 just one break an octave or so from the top, but several breaks at =3D intervals in=3D20 the compass are required.&nbsp; It is usual (although by no means =3D universal) for=3D20 each rank to break back a fifth at each break.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Thus, for example, a typical = four-rank =3D mixture=3D20 might start at low C with its four ranks 1.1/3', 1', 2/3' and 1/2'=3D20 pitches.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>An octave higher at tenor C it might = =3D become 2',=3D20 1.1/3', 1'. 2/3'.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>At middle C it might break again to = =3D 2.2/3', 2',=3D20 1.1/3'. 1'.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>An octave higher at treble C it might = =3D then become=3D20 4', 2.2/3', 2', 1.1/3',</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>And for the highest octave it might = =3D become,=3D20 </FONT><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>5.1/3', 4', 2.2/3',&nbsp;2'.&nbsp; = =3D EXCEPT (as=3D20 several people have pointed out) that 5.1/3' belongs to the 16' harmonic = =3D series,=3D20 and many people think this should be avoided.&nbsp; Therefore one might = =3D make=3D20 this octave 8', 4', 2.2/3', 2' or&nbsp;(if one is an idiot with&nbsp;no = =3D notion=3D20 of the problems duplicated pitches create for tuning) 4', 2.2/3', = 2',=3D20 2'.</FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>In order to understand the overall = =3D concept of a=3D20 mixture, one has first, of course to understand that all these pitches =3D are part=3D20 of the harmonic series -- the natural overtones that all pipes possess =3D and which=3D20 organ stops above 8' pitch are intended to reinforce.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Thus unison pitch, the same as a = piano, =3D is 8'=3D20 pitch.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The second harmonic (or first = overtone) =3D is 8/2'=3D20 pitch, or 4' pitch, and plays an octave higher.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The third harmonic is 8/3' pitch, or = =3D 2.2/3' pitch,=3D20 and plays a fifth higher than that.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The fourth harmonic is 8/4' pitch, or = =3D 2' pitch, and=3D20 plays two octaves above unison.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The fifth harmonic is 8/5' pitch, or = =3D 1.3/5' pitch,=3D20 and plays a third above that.</FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The sixth harmonic is 8/6' pitch, or = =3D 1.1/3' pitch,=3D20 and plays two octaves and a fifth above unison pitch.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>The seventh harmonic is 8/7' pitch, = or =3D 1.1/7'=3D20 pitch, and plays two octaves and a diminished seventh above unison =3D pitch, and so=3D20 on.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Normal quint mixtures only make use = of =3D the=3D20 harmonics play octaves or fifths,</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>i.e. 8/1, 8/2, 8/3, 8/4, 8/6, 8/8, = =3D 8/12, 8/16,=3D20 etc.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Another way of describing these is to = =3D count the=3D20 number of white notes above the unison the pipe plays.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Thus an 8' stop, unison, is a = first=3D20 (1)</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>A 4' stop, and octave, is an = eighth=3D20 (8)</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>A 2.2/3' stop, an octave quint, is a = =3D twelfth=3D20 (12)</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>A 2' stop, a super octave, two = octaves =3D above=3D20 unison, is a fifteenth (15)</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>A 1.1/3' stop, two octaves and a = fifth =3D above=3D20 unison, is</FONT>&nbsp;<FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>a nineteenth (19) = and =3D so=3D20 on.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>Thus the four rank mixture mentioned = =3D above might=3D20 also be written out:</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>C&nbsp;&nbsp; = 19-22-26-29</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>c&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =3D 15-19-22-26</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>c1&nbsp;&nbsp; = 12-15-19-22</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>c2&nbsp;&nbsp; = 8-12-15-19</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>c3&nbsp;&nbsp; 5-8-12-15 or 1-8-12-15 = =3D or=3D20 8-12-15-15</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>In the case of, say, a three rank =3D mixture starting=3D20 at 2', 1.1/3', 1' not so many breaks would be required,</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>and one might design something = like=3D20 this:</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>C&nbsp;&nbsp; 15-19-22</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>f&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =3D 12-15-19</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>f2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =3D 8-12-15</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>I hope this helps a bit.</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3D3DArial size=3D3D2>John = Speller</FONT></DIV></BODY></HTML>   ------=3D_NextPart_000_00C2_01C17916.C3204D40--    
(back) Subject: Re: A Little Holiday Article From: <DudelK@aol.com> Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 22:26:09 EST       DudelK Washington, DC  
(back) Subject: Re: Mixtures From: <Cremona502@cs.com> Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 00:50:05 EST     --part1_17.1f658c55.2938780d_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   In a message dated 11/29/01 4:15:08 PM Eastern Standard Time, ken_earl01@hotmail.com writes:     > Have I shed light?? >   I think so.... it should arrive soon!!!   Thanks. Very informative. I'll read it more!   This has been (is) a very interesting thread. Please continue = contributing.   Bruce Cornely ~ Cremona502@cs.com with the Baskerbeagles in the Beagle's Nest ~ ""Haruffaroo, Bohawow!" Duncan, Miles, Molly, and Dewi Please visit Howling Acres at http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502/ and wander through the Mall Without Walls   --part1_17.1f658c55.2938780d_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>In a message dated = 11/29/01 4:15:08 PM Eastern Standard Time, ken_earl01@hotmail.com writes: <BR> <BR> <BR><BLOCKQUOTE TYPE=3DCITE style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; = MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px">Have I shed = light?? <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D3 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"></BLOCKQUOTE> <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D2 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"> <BR>I think so.... it should arrive soon!!! &nbsp;&nbsp; <BR> <BR>Thanks. &nbsp;Very informative. &nbsp;&nbsp;I'll read it more! <BR> <BR>This has been (is) a very interesting thread. &nbsp;&nbsp;Please = continue contributing. <BR> <BR>Bruce Cornely &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;~ &nbsp;Cremona502@cs.com &nbsp; <BR>with the Baskerbeagles in the Beagle's Nest ~ ""Haruffaroo, Bohawow!" <BR> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Duncan, Miles, Molly, and Dewi <BR>Please visit Howling Acres at = &nbsp;&nbsp;http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502/ <BR> &nbsp;&nbsp;and wander through the Mall Without Walls</FONT></HTML>   --part1_17.1f658c55.2938780d_boundary--  
(back) Subject: Re: Wow! It's Christmas already! From: <Cremona502@cs.com> Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 00:57:29 EST     --part1_78.1e92dcd1.293879c9_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   In a message dated 11/29/01 8:50:10 PM Eastern Standard Time, gksjd85@access.aic-fl.com writes:     > ! I may never get to > ask another stupid question again. What more could anyone want? >   Oh dear!!! whatever shall we do??? ;-)   I would send you a lovely Christmas card (but i don't send them!!! = heeheehee)   Bruce Cornely ~ Cremona502@cs.com with the Baskerbeagles in the Beagle's Nest ~ ""Haruffaroo, Bohawow!" Duncan, Miles, Molly, and Dewi Please visit Howling Acres at http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502/ and wander through the Mall Without Walls   --part1_78.1e92dcd1.293879c9_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>In a message dated = 11/29/01 8:50:10 PM Eastern Standard Time, gksjd85@access.aic-fl.com = writes: <BR> <BR> <BR><BLOCKQUOTE TYPE=3DCITE style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; = MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px">! &nbsp;I may = never get to <BR>ask another stupid question again. &nbsp;What more could anyone want? <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D3 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"></BLOCKQUOTE> <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D2 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"> <BR>Oh dear!!! &nbsp;whatever shall we do??? &nbsp;;-) <BR> <BR>I would send you a lovely Christmas card (but i don't send them!!! = heeheehee) <BR> <BR>Bruce Cornely &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;~ &nbsp;Cremona502@cs.com &nbsp; <BR>with the Baskerbeagles in the Beagle's Nest ~ ""Haruffaroo, Bohawow!" <BR> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Duncan, Miles, Molly, and Dewi <BR>Please visit Howling Acres at = &nbsp;&nbsp;http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502/ <BR> &nbsp;&nbsp;and wander through the Mall Without Walls</FONT></HTML>   --part1_78.1e92dcd1.293879c9_boundary--  
(back) Subject: CHARLOTTE, NC EVENSONG FOR ADVENT From: <ScottFop@aol.com> Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 01:26:55 EST     --part1_99.1e8b1535.293880af_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   The Chancel Choir and Pipe Organ of PLAZA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 2304 The Plaza Charlotte, North Carolina 28205   Scott F. Foppiano, Organist-Choirmaster   Friday Evening, December 14, 2001 8:00 PM   The semi-professional Chancel Choir and soloists of Plaza Church will = present the following musical offering for the Advent season:   "The Christmas Oratorio" by Camille Saint-Saens   Also included will be the following congregational hymns: "Lo, He Comes With Clouds Descending" (Helmsley) as the processional and "The Day Thou Gavest, Lord, Is Ended" (St. Clement, arr: Rutter) as the recessional.   There will be readings from the Old and New Testaments as well as the = singing of Psalm 96: "O Sing Unto the Lord a New Song" (Cantate Domino), Anglican Chant setting by W. Russell.   The evening will be opened and concluded with an invocation and = benediction for the Advent season and T. Tertius Noble's setting of the Magnificat and =   Nunc Dimittis (b minor) will be sung by the choir.   There is no admission charge, a free will offering will be taken at the = doors following the service to benefit the church's Music Department.   --part1_99.1e8b1535.293880af_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>The Chancel Choir and = Pipe Organ of <BR>PLAZA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH <BR>2304 The Plaza <BR>Charlotte, North Carolina 28205 <BR> <BR>Scott F. Foppiano, Organist-Choirmaster <BR> <BR>Friday Evening, December 14, 2001 <BR>8:00 PM <BR> <BR>The semi-professional Chancel Choir and soloists of Plaza Church will = present the following musical offering for the Advent season: &nbsp; <BR> <BR>"The Christmas Oratorio" by Camille Saint-Saens <BR> <BR>Also included will be the following congregational hymns: <BR>"Lo, He Comes With Clouds Descending" (Helmsley) as the processional = and <BR>"The Day Thou Gavest, Lord, Is Ended" (St. Clement, arr: Rutter) as = the recessional. <BR> <BR>There will be readings from the Old and New Testaments as well as the = singing of Psalm 96: "O Sing Unto the Lord a New Song" (Cantate Domino), = Anglican Chant setting by W. Russell. <BR> <BR>The evening will be opened and concluded with an invocation and = benediction for the Advent season and T. Tertius Noble's setting of the = Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (b minor) will be sung by the choir. <BR> <BR>There is no admission charge, a free will offering will be taken at = the doors following the service to benefit the church's Music = Department.</FONT></HTML>   --part1_99.1e8b1535.293880af_boundary--