PipeChat Digest #3156 - Wednesday, October 2, 2002
 
Re: Fisk Opus 101- Southern Methodist Univ.
  by "D. Keith Morgan" <aeolian_skinner@yahoo.com>
Seconding a Sebastian Motion!
  by "Malcolm Wechsler" <manderusa@earthlink.net>
Re: Intermodulation Distortion
  by <Cremona502@cs.com>
Re: Fist, Opus 119 - First Presbyterian - Gainesville FL
  by "jon bertschinger" <jonberts@magiccablepc.com>
Closer hamony
  by <cmys13085@blueyonder.co.uk>
Leathering lips
  by <cmys13085@blueyonder.co.uk>
Re: Questions of distortion
  by "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net>
Re: Fisk Opus 101 - Southern Methodist Univ.
  by "Brent Johnson" <brentmj@swbell.net>
Re: Leathering lips
  by <TubaMagna@aol.com>
Re: Leathering lips
  by "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com>
Re: Fisk Opus 101- Southern Methodist Univ.
  by <Cremona502@cs.com>
Re: Fist, Opus 119 - First Presbyterian - Gainesville FL
  by <Cremona502@cs.com>
Harmonic Content of Leathered Lips
  by <TubaMagna@aol.com>
 

(back) Subject: Re: Fisk Opus 101- Southern Methodist Univ. From: "D. Keith Morgan" <aeolian_skinner@yahoo.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 15:24:52 -0700 (PDT)   One thing I would like to add to my comment on the SMU Fisk organ is that I did notice that at the beginning of a chord, the tone would go ever so slightly flat after the initial attack. I do not consider this to be a problem, however. This may be what they call "Flexible winding".   It could probably be eliminated, but considering how much it would cost, why bother? This slight unsteadiness is noticable only to those with very sharp ears, and the average listener probably wouldn't notice any difference if it was "corrected".   D. Keith Morgan     --- "D. Keith Morgan" <aeolian_skinner@yahoo.com> wrote: > I've heard the SMU Fisk in several recitals. I > haven't heard any distortion. Whoever told you that > needs to clean his ears out. > > > --- "Jan S. Van Der Stad" <dorian@nac.net> wrote: > > Hi List > > > > Someone recently told me that Fisk Opus 101 is > full > > of distortion. That's > > something I don't think I've heard yet on a pipe > > organ. And yet I'm told > > it's such a thing on this one. > > > > Can anybody confirm this? > > > > Thanks > > > > Jan S. Van Der Stad > > > > > > > > > > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital > > organs & related topics > > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > > List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org > > Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org > > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: > mailto:requests@pipechat.org > > > > > __________________________________________________ > Do you Yahoo!? > New DSL Internet Access from SBC & Yahoo! > http://sbc.yahoo.com > > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital > organs & related topics > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org > Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org >     __________________________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? New DSL Internet Access from SBC & Yahoo! http://sbc.yahoo.com  
(back) Subject: Seconding a Sebastian Motion! From: "Malcolm Wechsler" <manderusa@earthlink.net> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 19:17:28 -0400   Dear Lists,   I am breaking the rule against "me too" postings on PipOrg-L, because I = feel deeply compelled to do so. If you have not read Sebastian Gluck's posting = on both lists headed "Questions of Distortion," I hope you might do so. It is = a very important piece of writing (and thinking). The last paragraph sums it up rather well, and I have quoted that in part below. The last sentence alone is worth posting somewhere, possibly at AGO meetings, and certainly = in teaching studios in universities with Organ departments everywhere.   < Let us not scuttle each others' careers and livelihoods based upon hearsay, and not > < "lead the witness." Sweeping generalizations are destructive (have you ever > < been a victim of one?). As our profession withers, let us bring out the = > < watering can, not the defoliant. >   < Sebastian M. Gluck > < New York City" >   Cheers,   Malcolm Wechsler www.mander-organs.com        
(back) Subject: Re: Intermodulation Distortion From: <Cremona502@cs.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 19:19:21 EDT     --part1_de.2debdb79.2acb8779_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   In a message dated 10/1/02 5:47:13 PM Eastern Daylight Time, bruce@gbmuk.fsnet.co.uk writes:     > The only other thought which occurs is that there is some sort leakage > (running)within the chests, and notes (low notes ?) are sounding or half >   Thanks for the explanation, Bruce; however, I think I understood the one about howling dogs better! heeheehee   I think regarding the hearing of "distortion" in the SMU organ, that the problem may be more semantic than aural. If the person could describe = more vividly what they heard, being as specific and objective as possible, it might be easier to discover just what it was. After all, some people consider flexible wind distortion!   Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 ....an opportunity for health & wealth http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053   --part1_de.2debdb79.2acb8779_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>In a message dated = 10/1/02 5:47:13 PM Eastern Daylight Time, bruce@gbmuk.fsnet.co.uk writes: <BR> <BR> <BR><BLOCKQUOTE TYPE=3DCITE style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; = MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px">The only other = thought which occurs is that there is some sort leakage <BR>(running)within the chests, and notes (low notes ?) are sounding or = half <BR>sounding which should not be. Just a thought.</BLOCKQUOTE> <BR> <BR>Thanks for the explanation, Bruce; however, I think I understood the = one about howling dogs better! &nbsp;heeheehee <BR> <BR>I think regarding the hearing of "distortion" in the SMU organ, that = the problem may be more semantic than aural. &nbsp;&nbsp;If the person = could describe more vividly what they heard, being as specific and = objective as possible, it might be easier to discover just what it was. = &nbsp;&nbsp;After all, some people consider flexible wind distortion! <BR> <BR>Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 <BR>...an opportunity for health &amp; wealth = &nbsp;http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053</FONT></HTML>   --part1_de.2debdb79.2acb8779_boundary--  
(back) Subject: Re: Fist, Opus 119 - First Presbyterian - Gainesville FL From: "jon bertschinger" <jonberts@magiccablepc.com> Date: Tue, 01 Oct 2002 18:42:59 -0500   thanks for the stoplist....<G>   Jon  
(back) Subject: Closer hamony From: <cmys13085@blueyonder.co.uk> Date: Wed, 2 Oct 2002 01:55:36 +0100   Hello,   Sebastian Gluck's excellent posting also carried, right at the end, a = very poignant phrase...."as our profession withers".   Malcolm Wechsler quite rightly seconds a hearfelt and highly relevant = plea from Sebastian Gluck.....we have all been victims of the unjust = attack or the undeserved criticism. (I know this only too well in the = recent past....but let's not dwell on that debacle!)   The final comment about a "withering profession" is one which is = possibly even more relevant in the UK, with organ builders struggling, = churches and venues closing and with considerable economic opposition = from the digital organ makers. The recent and continuing financial = melt-down is bound to have re-percussions as money supplies tighten = further.   In times of economic recession, it is seldom the good who survive, but = the more ruthless, the less scrupulous and the least financially high = geared. In other words, it will be businessmen rather than = artist-craftsmen who survive. Business is a ruthless affair, and = undermining the opposition is considered fair-play.   I have very real sympathy for the plight of anyone involved in = organ-building in this day and age. By the very nature of organ = building, there is always a very large time-gap from a contract being = secured to the final payment being received. The same problem has = witnessed the demise of many craftsmen boat-builders, whilst the glass = fibre men survive.   Of course, I have said before that organ-builkders seldom have anything = good to say each for the other. I suppose that this is as true now as it = was a century or more ago, but there were notable exceptions. = Cavaille-Coll always encouraged other organ-builders and even supplied = pipes to them. There is the wonderful collaboration between Schulze in = Germany and Brindley & Foster in the UK. Both were builders with a = generous disposition who fostered the art and gave encouragement to = those who genuinely sought to perfect their craft.   It is interesting to note that Brindley & Foster, having gained a fine = reputation, approached the 20th century by going down the factory organ = route once Charles Brindley no longer exerted influence. Hence the = in-house mass-production (or as near as it is possible to get) employed = by John Compton; a former B&F apprentice.   The further complication is a decline in religion generally. Again, the = most "popular" will survive, purely on economic grounds....we live in an = age of "pop" culture. I shan't go into the theology of it all, but I can = fully understand the decline in religion as faith is dragged back to a = fundamentalist stance of Biblical piety by the manipulative.   Sadly, so many artists and craftsmen adopt the ostrich mentality when = faced with this sort of decline, but there is a way of coping with it = all which may just ensure survival.=20   The first rule is not to feel self-pity......it is important to accept = what is happening in good faith and with good humour.   Secondly, start to think like an accountant by trimming costs where = possible.   Thirdly, look at the borrowing and funding of projects closely and make = adjustments as may be necessary. Use penalty clauses for late payments.   Fourthly, think AROUND the situation.....there are so many skills an = organ-builder has to offer to other craftsmen. Quality furniture = production springs to mind or, perhaps better still, importing ready = made, part-finished furniture from China and Europe (Albania, Romania = etc) and finishing it well. I think Steinmeyer ended up making furniture!   However, Sebastian perhaps makes the greatest point of all....that of = mutual respect and encouragement in a situation amounting to decline. If = organ-builder co-operated and communicated, they could work wonders in = cutting costs.   In the UK, the olive branch of the Theatre Organ kept some great = organ-building companies alive. Walkers, Nicholson and others, were = sub-contractors to people like John Compton....in other words, they = collaborated to their mutual well-being at a time when organ-building = was in serious decline with wars and the depression years.   Unfortunately, that avenue will not be available in the future.=20   So above all, organ builders who work as sole operators must learn = proper business skills.....something which has been sadly lacking in = even the finest companies over the decades.   Organists and organ-lovers would do well to remember that organ-builders = are usually people of considerable integrity They are also often = introverts, awkward, impossible perfectionists and miserable company to = be with. They are also often very sensitive people who whince at unfair = criticism.   However, it would be a bad world without individualists and = craftsmen....so perhaps we should encourage anyone involved in organ = building and organ playing.....it can be a lonely pursuit. I once sat = with an organ-builder until 1am in the morning as he beavered = away.....my just being there was greatly appreciated. No one can ever = understand just how lonely things can get in that situation, unless of = course, they have practised alone in a deserted building through the = night just to make sure that a recital or accompaniment was up to = scratch.   Regards,   Colin Mitchell UK                        
(back) Subject: Leathering lips From: <cmys13085@blueyonder.co.uk> Date: Wed, 2 Oct 2002 02:18:38 +0100   Hello,   In a very recent posting, I asked a question about leathering lips. I = think I asked, "Has anyone ever leathered the lips of un-nicked, = open-foot pipework and, if so, what does it sound like?"   I had a reason for asking.   No-one has responded.   Allow me to explain my enquiry. If there is a desire to create an = instrument which is essentially baroque, with open-foot voicing and no = nicks in the languids, the effect can be fairly bad in the wrong = acoustic. Listening to such pipes close up, it seems to me that a great = deal of "edge" is created which needs a big acoustic to reduce the = effects of a very bright tone. The usual method has been to nick the = pipes lightly.   So what happens to the tone of a pipe if, instead of using nicking or = closing up pipe-tips, the edge-tone is diminished by the use of = leathering? It would surely "sweeten" the tone but without the = disadvantages of slow speech.   It may seem like a crazy enquiry, but I really would like to know if = anyone has tried this.   Regards,   Colin Mitchell - UK   (Poised with glue and leather if no-one enlightens him!)    
(back) Subject: Re: Questions of distortion From: "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net> Date: Tue, 01 Oct 2002 21:35:51 -0400   On 10/1/02 9:27 AM, "TubaMagna@aol.com" <TubaMagna@aol.com> wrote:   > As our profession withers, let us bring out the > watering can, not the defoliant.   Thank you, Sebastian. All the way.   Alan.      
(back) Subject: Re: Fisk Opus 101 - Southern Methodist Univ. From: "Brent Johnson" <brentmj@swbell.net> Date: Tue, 01 Oct 2002 20:48:53 -0500   This is a multi-part message in MIME format.   --Boundary_(ID_QltwMlphxUMrfWmbD1c3kA) Content-type: text/plain; charset=3Diso-8859-1 Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT   I have many times played and listened to the Fisk at in Caruth = Auditorium at SMU. I can assure you I never experienced any sort of tonal = "distortion" in its sound. When I hear that particular word, I assume = it's the sound one gets when recording and microphone levels are set too = high, or the distortion deliberately applied to an electric guitar. The = organ is large for the room, and can be quite powerful, but I don't think = I would call it over-powering, as the choruses are very well defined and = voiced. It also has some wonderful quiet colors as well. The recording = of Larry Palmer mentioned in this thread on the dedication recital = demonstrates that well, especially in the Frank Chorale in E major. The first time I experienced the instrument, Bob Anderson took me = through it, building each chorus and examining every stop. By the end it = was a bit overwhelming to me as a young student, as I had never played and = been so close to such an instrument. Rather than overpowering, I think I = would use the word all encompassing, as its sound seems to wrap around the = listener, rather than hitting the listener in the face, or seeming to come = from a distant source. That may be more a response of the hall itself. The SMU Fisk in an excellent instrument. I don't know that everyone = loves it, and I don't know that I would ever build an organ exactly like = it, but I can assure you all the only thing being distorted are the = stories about this instrument. Brent Johnson     --Boundary_(ID_QltwMlphxUMrfWmbD1c3kA) Content-type: text/html; charset=3Diso-8859-1 Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT   <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML><HEAD> <META http-equiv=3DContent-Type content=3D"text/html; = charset=3Diso-8859-1"> <META content=3D"MSHTML 6.00.2719.2200" name=3DGENERATOR> <STYLE></STYLE> </HEAD> <BODY bgColor=3D#ffffff> <DIV><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I have many times&nbsp;played and listened to the Fisk at in Caruth Auditorium at = SMU.&nbsp; I can assure you I never experienced any sort of tonal "distortion" in its =   sound.&nbsp; When I hear that particular word, I assume it's the sound one = gets when recording and microphone levels are set too high, or the distortion deliberately applied to an electric guitar.&nbsp; The organ is large for = the room, and can be quite powerful, but I don't think I would call it over-powering, as the choruses are&nbsp;very well defined and voiced.&nbsp;&nbsp;It also has some wonderful quiet colors as well.&nbsp; = The recording of Larry Palmer mentioned in this thread on the dedication = recital demonstrates that well, especially in the Frank Chorale in E = major.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The first time I =   experienced the instrument, Bob Anderson took me through it, building each =   chorus and examining every stop.&nbsp; By the end it was a bit = overwhelming to me as a young student,&nbsp;as I had never played and been so close to = such an instrument.&nbsp; Rather than overpowering, I think I would use the word = all encompassing, as its sound seems to wrap around the listener, rather than hitting the listener in the face, or seeming to come from a distant source.&nbsp; That may be more a response of the hall itself.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The SMU Fisk in = an excellent instrument.&nbsp; I don't know that everyone loves it, and I = don't know that I would ever build an organ exactly like it, but I can assure = you all the only thing being distorted are the stories about this instrument.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>Brent Johnson</FONT></DIV> <DIV>&nbsp;</DIV></BODY></HTML>   --Boundary_(ID_QltwMlphxUMrfWmbD1c3kA)--  
(back) Subject: Re: Leathering lips From: <TubaMagna@aol.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 22:19:46 EDT   Methinks you'd end up with a dull hoot. You are much better off actually voicing these neoBaroque pipes, as = open toes, untreated languids, and paper-thin flues give you much less control than, for example, English "system voicing." That having been said, I am envious of my colleagues who have voiced exceptionally beautiful and = exciting musical instruments with minimal wind pressure and little mouth treatment. I just completed two 10" pressure stops with leathered lips, a Stentorphone and a Violoncello. It requires a great deal of activation = energy to get them to speak, in light of how thick the upholstery on the upper = lip makes the entire striking surface. This is not althogether closed-toe voicing! Remember that we are dealing with a wind sheet that must = oscillate and deal with suction and compression in the air column, and must strike = with enough precision and force as to excite that air column. So, I suppose the point of this soporific rambling is that I would definitely have a qualified voicer pull out his voicing tools and get to work, with one caveat: I think an instrument should have some kind of philosophical integrity, and that all of the voicing should be of a = "type." Are you going to "make the rough places plain," or are you really going = for a new sound?   Sebastian M. Gluck New York City  
(back) Subject: Re: Leathering lips From: "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 21:31:53 -0500   ---- Original Message ----- From: <TubaMagna@aol.com> To: <cmys13085@blueyonder.co.uk>; <pipechat@pipechat.org> Sent: Tuesday, October 01, 2002 9:19 PM Subject: Re: Leathering lips > I just completed two 10" pressure stops with leathered lips, a > Stentorphone and a Violoncello. It requires a great deal of activation energy > to get them to speak, in light of how thick the upholstery on the upper lip > makes the entire striking surface. This is not althogether closed-toe > voicing   Perhaps, then you might be able to answer a question that has been = puzzling me for some time. The "received opinion" is that diapasons (or stentorphones) with leathered lips are immensely powerful but rather dull. It is my experience that they are in fact very bright, with more developed harmonics than diapasons with unleathered lips. While this seems counter-intuitive, it does seem to be what my ears tell me. What gives?   John Speller    
(back) Subject: Re: Fisk Opus 101- Southern Methodist Univ. From: <Cremona502@cs.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 23:21:52 EDT     --part1_132.14c7f78c.2acbc050_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   In a message dated 10/1/02 7:35:10 PM Eastern Daylight Time, aeolian_skinner@yahoo.com writes:     > One thing I would like to add to my comment on the SMU > Fisk organ is that I did notice that at the beginning > of a chord, the tone would go ever so slightly flat > after the initial attack. I do not consider this to > be a problem, however. This may be what they call >   That would be my guess. I noticed on Fisk, Opus 119, when a large chord = is played and sustained that after the initial attack, the sound backs-off a little although without a significantly noticeable pitch sag, but then quickly recovers and the sound then swells. It's very dramatic to my = ears. I listen for flexible winding and the tortuous moments of unequal temperament; when they're evident it's heavenly to me. This was so = evident in the Toccata and Fugue in F.... both concluding chords were positively riviting!   Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 ....an opportunity for health & wealth http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053   --part1_132.14c7f78c.2acbc050_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>In a message dated = 10/1/02 7:35:10 PM Eastern Daylight Time, aeolian_skinner@yahoo.com = writes: <BR> <BR> <BR><BLOCKQUOTE TYPE=3DCITE style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; = MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px">One thing I would = like to add to my comment on the SMU <BR>Fisk organ is that I did notice that at the beginning <BR>of a chord, the tone would go ever so slightly flat <BR>after the initial attack. &nbsp;I do not consider this to <BR>be a problem, however. &nbsp;This may be what they call <BR>"Flexible winding".</BLOCKQUOTE> <BR> <BR>That would be my guess. &nbsp;&nbsp;I noticed on Fisk, Opus 119, when = a large chord is played and sustained that after the initial attack, the = sound backs-off a little although without a significantly noticeable pitch = sag, but then quickly recovers and the sound then swells. &nbsp;&nbsp;It's = very dramatic to my ears. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;I listen for flexible winding = and the tortuous moments of unequal temperament; when they're evident it's = heavenly to me. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;This was so evident in the Toccata and = Fugue in F.... &nbsp;both concluding chords were positively riviting! <BR> <BR> <BR>Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 <BR>...an opportunity for health &amp; wealth = &nbsp;http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053</FONT></HTML>   --part1_132.14c7f78c.2acbc050_boundary--  
(back) Subject: Re: Fist, Opus 119 - First Presbyterian - Gainesville FL From: <Cremona502@cs.com> Date: Tue, 1 Oct 2002 23:22:55 EDT     --part1_1bb.6f5c1b0.2acbc08f_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   In a message dated 10/1/02 7:43:46 PM Eastern Daylight Time, jonberts@magiccablepc.com writes:     > thanks for the stoplist....<G> > >   You're very welcome... you know me... a stoplist junkie from the word go! = Sending or receiving. Typing a stoplist is akin to a love letter! ;-)   Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 ....an opportunity for health & wealth http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053   --part1_1bb.6f5c1b0.2acbc08f_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   <HTML><FONT FACE=3Darial,helvetica><FONT SIZE=3D2>In a message dated = 10/1/02 7:43:46 PM Eastern Daylight Time, jonberts@magiccablepc.com = writes: <BR> <BR> <BR><BLOCKQUOTE TYPE=3DCITE style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; = MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px">thanks for the = stoplist....&lt;G&gt; <BR> <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D3 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"></BLOCKQUOTE> <BR></FONT><FONT COLOR=3D"#000000" SIZE=3D2 FAMILY=3D"SANSSERIF" = FACE=3D"Arial" LANG=3D"0"> <BR>You're very welcome... &nbsp;you know me... a stoplist junkie from the = word go! &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Sending or receiving. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Typing = a stoplist is akin to a love letter! &nbsp;;-) <BR> <BR>Bruce in the Muttastery at Howling Acres = http://members.tripod.com/Brucon502 <BR>...an opportunity for health &amp; wealth = &nbsp;http://visionsuccess.com/BC2053</FONT></HTML>   --part1_1bb.6f5c1b0.2acbc08f_boundary--  
(back) Subject: Harmonic Content of Leathered Lips From: <TubaMagna@aol.com> Date: Wed, 2 Oct 2002 00:25:40 EDT   Dear Mr. Speller:   I think the bad reputation of leathered lip Diapasons came from the = nadir of tone during the first quarter of the last century, when many a Swell department, at least Stateside, sported a "Diapason Phonon" of large = scale, high cutup, and worst of all, insufficient wind, either at the source, or = at the toe. What I like to call the "activation energy," the critical point at = which leathered pipes take on their drive and intensity, is at a much higher = level than one might expect. When one dips below this threshhold, the dropoff in =   power and brilliance is sudden and sizeable. When copiously winded, with a generous flue (on 10" wind, figure just = shy of the pipe metal thickness as the TOTAL depth of the aperture produced by =   the flue width and the nick depth), and a languid low enough to really get =   the pipe onto speech quickly without having to play games with the upper = lip, these creatures can be as loud and brilliant as any chorus reed. I was particularly astounded by the intensity and trumpet-like nature of the Violoncello up close. Three technique tips: (1) Make sure that you have REALLY cut your upper lip as straight as possible, and polish it with lateral strokes of your voicing blade. = Believe it or not, despite the added thickness of the leather, skiving the upper = lip is not always necessary. (2) Select your leather carefully. Nothing from the armpit or = backbone ridge of the sheep hide, and no thin spots. Hold it up to a light table = and make sure it's pretty even. Assume that it's pouch leather! Scale your leather thicknesses about 50-75% the thickness of the pipe metal, although =   this is an imprecise art, and one might have to experiment. If you change =   leathers, make certain that the old material is completely cleared away. (3) Don't use too much glue. It will saturate the leather and make a =   messy job messier (the smaller it is, the harder it is to tuck that = initial flap inside the pipe, especially if you are releathering pipes which = already have bridges installed). It will also harden the surface and subcutaneous flesh of the leather, and cause the pipe tone to be harsh. Hope these odd bits give you a bit more information. Sebastian