PipeChat Digest #3403 - Monday, January 27, 2003
 
Re: Franck and Reger
  by <RonSeverin@aol.com>
Re: Franck and Reger
  by <RonSeverin@aol.com>
Cameron Carpenter in Allentown
  by "Stephen Williams" <stepwill@enter.net>
Fred Swann in Cleveland
  by "Barry H Bodie" <bbodie@InfoAve.Net>
RE: Contemporary organ music
  by "Emmons, Paul" <pemmons@wcupa.edu>
 

(back) Subject: Re: Franck and Reger From: <RonSeverin@aol.com> Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 11:18:48 -0500   Dear Pipechatters:   I find The artical by Martin Yribarren on the first Choral in E by Franck fascinating PP 84-86. Franck incorporated the tritone into the complexity of this work of long harmonic labyrinth like phrases. It also brings to mind Max Reger who also wrote complex difficult to navigate music. I suppose the question in my mind is, was Max aware of Franck's organ music, and wish to have the final word on this type of compositional developement? Suffice it to say, it would appear both men had very long fingers. I'm curious, and would like to hear opinions about their developmental style, from those of analytical bent, and their seemingly similar chromatic ideas.   Franck must have been a quick composer to accomplish what he did in so short a time between his accident and his death, The 12 pieces, and the famous 59.   Ron Severin  
(back) Subject: Re: Franck and Reger From: <RonSeverin@aol.com> Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 11:23:50 -0500   In my last post I ment to say that the artical I refered to was in the January, 2003 TAO pp84-86.   Ron  
(back) Subject: Cameron Carpenter in Allentown From: "Stephen Williams" <stepwill@enter.net> Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 13:33:33 -0500   Dear List Members,   I've gotten a number of requests from list members for a review of Cameron Carpenter's concert at St. John's Lutheran in Allentown. So, from my pew, this is how it turned out.   Cameron was invited to Allentown for two events last weekend. He was guest organist at the annual all-day LVAGO Church Music Implosion held at First Presbyterian Church on Saturday, which meant that he played opening and closing worship services and gave a masterclass. His service playing was quite wonderful and exciting, which was a surprise to me, somehow. The overtone was UCC this year, so there were no great demands as far liturgy goes, but his hymn playing was fresh and inventive with a good sense of = solo lines and accompanying. Tempos were brisk but with a sense of momentum rather than pushing, harmonies were quite varied with an air of jazz on occasion, and he was not afraid to use alternate rhythmic patterns punctuating texts without being overly distracting. His voluntaries consisting of Bach (G Maj P&F), Middelshulte and Widor were played with = vim and vigor without the slightest sense that worship was the context du = jour, and all were from memory, of course. Particular note might be given the Widor Toccata (Symph V) since it was played at breakneck speed, pistons pushed at every possible moment, B section on a Flute 8 with the solo line (a bit of re-writing here) carried on in the pedal on a Flute 4, and then gradual build-up to full organ for the end. Not the Widor I well know, but exciting nonetheless. I wasn't able to attend, but I heard that Cameron's masterclass on organ registration was well received. It turned out to be = an opporunity for Cameron to freely talk about the future of the organ as a concert instrument, which in his opinion, seems to be tending toward the same fate as the dinosaur. Then on to Sunday's concert at St. John's . . . Cameron opened with his transcription of the Rondo-Finale from Mahler's = 5th. This was perhaps the finest offering of the afternoon, particularly for those who are fimiliar with the piece. His use of color reeds (Eng Horn, = Fr Horn, Clarinet, Oboe d'Amour, Waldhorn) was astounding as well as re-creating Mahler's battery of bass trombones and low brass in general = for those moments when Mahler provides those tingling exclamation points. The overall sense of the direction of the piece was never once lost. The only possible problem was that we were all limp as wet dish towels afterward, emotionally and spiritually exhausted, and couldn't imagine that there was more to come!! But there was .. . after a bit of explanation about its epithet, Cameron virtually launched into Bach's Prelude and Fugue in E minor (Wedge). It wasn't too far into the piece that the realization struck that we were perhaps in for a very different, if not unique program. But, at this = point, we weren't clear as to whether this uniqueness was to be enlightening, entertaining, tedious, disturbing, or downright annoying. Well, at least = the noises were close to what was anticipated. There was a collection of full principal choruses used throughout with 16-foot reeds randomly in and out for the pedal line. At the speed of light, we were given a ride in a roller-coaster cart that stayed on its tracks only by the grace of a = higher being. There was up and down, slow and fast, tunnels and daylight, and the occasional big 32 reed in places where even Virgil would not have dared. = The playing was extremely accurate note-wise, and perhaps this coupled with = the raw inertia and head of steam that Cameron manages to create is what makes for titillating and successful performances. The painting began to spring forth with full-spectrum colors, but we were still uncertain as to the = shape of the artwork. Then on to Percy Whitlock's delightful Allegretto in E Major from the Five Short Pieces. In his introduction, Cameron told us that there would be = some 200 piston changes in this very short piece (75 measures, if one wants to know). This is wonderful music, and recommended highly as a recital or maybe wedding piece. However, Cameron's interpretation, even though very entertaining, was rather distracting if one was set on figuring out what Mr. Whitlock's idea was trying to be. This beautiful, simplistic tune (not simple to = play, however) quickly became noisy, fussy, and a bit disturbing, I'm sorry to say, even though the complete tour of the organ, including harp and = chimes, tuba and en chamade was certainly fun. The overall effect was very theatrical, but somehow, unsatisfying. We were ready to move on. We were then invited into the world of Cameron's amazing pedal technique, = a place we were to stay for a while, as it turns out. According to Cameron, the use of pedal virtuosity is where the organ transcends the virtuosity exemplified by concert pianists. We were given Nikolai Medtner's March of the Paladin. Medtner was a contemporary of Rachmaninoff and supposedly = they knew each other. This March is from Medtner's collection of Russian Fairy Tales for piano, and there was a bit of explanation that the concept of fairy tales in Russia is dark and foreboding, unlike our ideas of Disney characters. Cameron's treatment was very orchestral, with much of the left hand part played by the pedals. Again, this is an interesting piece, but, with Cameron's approach, it began to sound very much like the Whitlock, = with hair-pin twists and turns, with many corners taken on two wheels. There seemed to be an interesting dilemma going on of a cinema sound-track approach rather than a transcription of a piece of music in and unto = itself. Also, watching foot dexterity is fun . . well, for a short while, as it turns out. Continuing in the same vein, Cameron then played the Perpetual Motion for Pedals Alone, perhaps THE virtuoso pedal piece by Wilhelm Middelschulte. After a short explanation of how Middelschulte based the piece on Bach's Wedge theme, he gave an outstanding performance of this formidable piece, = leaving the captivated audience stunned and in complete awe. After a short intermission, during which 95-percent of the audience took = up smoking again (just kidding), we were informed of a program change. = Cameron had listed the Bach P&F in G (BWV 541), but saying that since he didn't = have time to prepare it, he decided to play the Chopin Etude No. 10 in C-sharp minor, again with the left hand part largely played by the pedals. Hmmm, I was sort of in the mood for a piece of actual organ repertoire, but that = was not to be. The Chopin followed in the pattern of the transcriptions that had gone before = .. .. blistering tempo, accurate, exciting . . but somehow, a little = fatiguing. And then yet another transcription with Franz Liszt's Funerailles. Okay, = I'm beginning to wonder if the performer is a closet pianist (!?). In my introduction at the top of the program I had introduced him as a musician who happens = to play the organ, and I must admit that that statement was beginning to take on an additional shape. Be that as it may, the Liszt is an incredible work with totally contrasting themes that are splendidly brought together at = the end. Indeed, it does work on the organ, and Cameron's performance demonstrated that wonderfully. Again, we were given a masterful use of the organ's colors with usual solo sounds of 4-foot flutes, voxes on and off trem, interesting combinations of reeds and mutations, and in the pedal = solo flue combinations of 32 and 4 and 1, on separate occasions which to date I had not experienced. There was again much use of the en chamade and tuba, maybe a little to the extreme. Overall, however, the piece was beautifully played. One clearly heard the Lisztian language, with many references and similarities to the composer's setting of Via Crucis . . Stations of the Cross. Interesting. We then come to the improvisation, at which point I believe Cameron = usually takes themes from the audience as a basis for his work. Instead, he explained that even though totally against using concerts to make = political statements, he was going to play a Symphony for Peace in E Major in light of the seeming imminence of the US declaring war, and the use of nuclear weapons. The three movements were given the titles I. Idealism, II. The = Idea of Peace, and III. Peace Overcoming. As musical themes, he chose the = chorale tune Now Thank We All Our God, the Mariner's Hymn, various and sundry thematic material from orchestral works and hymns including one of Arthur Honegger's themes from his Christmas Cantata. Without going into great detail, I will simply say the overall venture was a success, even though energy of both performer and audience seemed to begin to wain about mid second movement. I applaude the idea and the statement that Cameron was making. The first two movements were a bit abstract and harbored wonderful moments of music making. The final movement was to represent the constant build-up of tensions that surround the environment of war with a sudden interruption of a calming peace. It was all very successful, and the = message clearly stated, with the last sound of the concert on the very quiet and comforting Flauto Dolce. What is clear to me is that Cameron is a strikingly unique individual. He = is musically gifted in ways that perhaps many of us will never be able to comprehend. It seems he gets his thrills by crossing reasonable lines that have legitimately been drawn in the sand, and doing it with great aplomb, only because he CAN. My hope for him is that someday he will begin to recognize the importance of humility, even though at this point in his = life this may not fit into his admittedly secular and prophetic nature. I was absolutely delighted to meet Cameron and make his acquaintence, and was thrilled to hear him perform. I wish him all the best as he completes his studies at Juilliard and dances off to even greater challenges.   Stephen Williams Director of Music and Organist, St. John's Ev. Lutheran Church, Allentown College Organist, Director of Chapel Music, Muhlenberg College      
(back) Subject: Fred Swann in Cleveland From: "Barry H Bodie" <bbodie@InfoAve.Net> Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 15:43:54 -0500   This is a multi-part message in MIME format.   ------=3D_NextPart_000_0005_01C2C61A.E9361440 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3D"us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit   I traveled from Brevard, NC to Cleveland to hear his recital. I was most impressed with the reincarnated Skinner in Severance Hall. I was sitting in the balcony in direct line with the organ. I could very easily discern the placement of the various divisions and individual stops within each division. The typical Skinner solo voices were wonderful. The pedal bombarde was overwhelming. I was less impressed with the solo Tuba Mirabilis, which I thought was underpowered for the remainder of the organ. Though its use was extensive in the Wilan Introduction, Passacaglia and Fugue, it functioned as more of a chorus reed than the powerful solo stop it was intended to be. I was also impressed with the principal chorus which was very clear and not at all tubby. Mixtures were also very nicely done. Even the Bach piece he played sounded acceptable. Not at all what some of us had been led to expect from E.M. Skinner in his heyday. From what I understand, Schantz didn't significantly change the voicing or character of the stops, nor were any added. Needless to say, Mr Swann's playing was impeccably flawless, his registration tasteful and his selections completely in character with the instrument. Given the opportunity, I can truly say I'd travel 500 miles through freezing temperatures and blizzard conditions to repeat the visit. Barry Bodie Brevard, NC   ------=3D_NextPart_000_0005_01C2C61A.E9361440 Content-Type: text/html; charset=3D"us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable   <html xmlns:o=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" =3D xmlns:w=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" =3D xmlns:st1=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" =3D xmlns=3D3D"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40">   <head> <META HTTP-EQUIV=3D3D"Content-Type" CONTENT=3D3D"text/html; =3D charset=3D3Dus-ascii">     <meta name=3D3DProgId content=3D3DWord.Document> <meta name=3D3DGenerator content=3D3D"Microsoft Word 10"> <meta name=3D3DOriginator content=3D3D"Microsoft Word 10"> <link rel=3D3DFile-List href=3D3D"cid:filelist.xml@01C2C61A.E4F92DE0"> <o:SmartTagType =3D namespaceuri=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D3D"place"/> <o:SmartTagType =3D namespaceuri=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D3D"State"/> <o:SmartTagType =3D namespaceuri=3D3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D3D"City"/> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:DoNotRelyOnCSS/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:DocumentKind>DocumentEmail</w:DocumentKind> <w:EnvelopeVis/> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if !mso]> <style> st1\:*{behavior:url(#default#ieooui) } </style> <![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} span.EmailStyle17 {mso-style-type:personal-compose; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-ascii-font-family:Arial; mso-hansi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; color:windowtext;} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */=3D20 table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--> </head>   <body lang=3D3DEN-US link=3D3Dblue vlink=3D3Dpurple =3D style=3D3D'tab-interval:.5in'>   <div class=3D3DSection1>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>I traveled from =3D </span></font><st1:place><st1:City><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Brevard</span></font></st1:C= =3D ity><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, =3D </span></font><st1:State><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>NC</span></font></st1:State>= =3D </st1:place><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'> to =3D </span></font><st1:City><st1:place><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Cleveland</span></font></st1= =3D :place></st1:City><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'> to hear his recital. I was most impressed with the reincarnated Skinner in Severance = =3D Hall. I was sitting in the balcony in direct line with the organ. I could very = =3D easily discern the placement of the various divisions and individual stops =3D within each division. The typical Skinner solo voices were wonderful. The pedal =3D <span class=3D3DSpellE>bombarde</span> was overwhelming. I was less impressed = =3D with the solo Tuba Mirabilis, which I thought was underpowered for the remainder = =3D of the organ. Though its use was extensive in the <span =3D class=3D3DSpellE>Wilan</span> Introduction, Passacaglia and Fugue, it functioned as more of a chorus =3D reed than the powerful solo stop it was intended to be. I was also impressed = =3D with the principal chorus which was very clear and not at all tubby. Mixtures = =3D were also very nicely done. Even the Bach piece he played sounded acceptable. = =3D Not at all what some of us had been led to expect from E.M. Skinner in his =3D heyday.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>From what I understand, <span =3D class=3D3DSpellE>Schantz</span> didn&#8217;t significantly change the voicing or character of the stops, = =3D nor were any added.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Needless to say, <span class=3D3DSpellE>Mr</span> =3D Swann&#8217;s playing was impeccably flawless, his registration tasteful and his =3D selections completely in character with the instrument. Given the opportunity, I =3D can truly say I&#8217;d travel 500 miles through freezing temperatures and =3D blizzard conditions to repeat the visit.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Barry Bodie<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>   <p class=3D3DMsoNormal><st1:place><st1:City><font size=3D3D2 =3D face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Brevard</span></font></st1:C=3D ity><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, =3D </span></font><st1:State><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>NC</span></font></st1:State>= =3D </st1:place><font size=3D3D2 face=3D3DArial><span =3D style=3D3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p= =3D >   </div>   </body>   </html>   ------=3D_NextPart_000_0005_01C2C61A.E9361440--      
(back) Subject: RE: Contemporary organ music From: "Emmons, Paul" <pemmons@wcupa.edu> Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 18:35:08 -0500   Artistic styles inevitably reflect the surrounding culture. When a civilization is in decline, its art becomes crude and bizarre. Art is prophetic, like the canaries in a coal mine. Don't just blame the = canaries when they keel over, or wring your hands in puzzlement. Look to your = oxygen supply.   Having just read Morris Berman's disturbingly perceptive book _The = Twilight of American Culture_, I strongly recommend it. We are now swimming in an environment in which frantic hucksterism and grim bean counting are the dominant values: anything to make a buck and beat, or at least survive, = the competition. Cultural declines have many characteristics in common but = they are not identical; they're variations on a theme. One of the = distinguishing traits of American (or Americanized) life is an atmosphere of frenetic activity and constant superficial change. The fact that this trait itself = is hardly declining conceals the larger decay. But the signs of trouble that characterized ancient Rome and other dominant cultures on the eve of their dissolution are falling alarmingly into place. In addition to the = artistic and aesthetic areas of culture, he discusses the disappearance of the = middle class as wealth becomes grotesquely concentrated in the hands of a small, powerful elite; the increasing size, complexity, and burdensomeness, but diminishing effectiveness, of government; a propensity to get involved in silly, unnecessary wars (Berman was writing in the year 2000, mind you); = and pervasive dumbing-down: a failure and disinterest in education (including the media's inexorable abandonment of serious news coverage in favor of frivolity and fantasy), with the populace falling back into ignorance and superstition.   I think that as organists we should find Berman's thought particularly interesting and relevant for at least two reasons. First, we know that we are the inheritors and surviving exponents of an especially splendid but = now especially marginalized artistic tradition. Second, this tradition, and most of us in practicing it, are part of the life and mission of the = church: the same institution that originated in a Roman empire that had begun to decline, and that flourished in contradistinction to it, and frequently suffered outright opposition from it. The church in those formative years became an important influence because her values stood out from the decadence of her surroundings and enabled her to survive in the wreckage = and to salvage the best parts of it. Some of what she saved for posterity = would not be revealed for another thousand years.   It is just as important for the church today to be in but not of the = world. This means that the church must not surrender to the prevailing secular _sine qua nons_ of quantification as the definition of success, and hype (which always contains an ingredient of fraud and manipulation) to achieve it. If she does so, she has taken in a Trojan horse, swallowed the recipe for decline, and become part of the problem rather than part of the solution.   These memes now permeate our society so thoroughly that considerable circumspection and inner direction are required of anyone intending to = stay unsullied by them. For an example of an endeavor that one might expect = to have what it takes to survive unscathed, but often has not, consider academe. Many "institutions of higher learning" (no longer dominated by faculty but by administrators) now consider themselves to be failing if = they don't forever enlarge, boom from colleges into universities, open branch campuses, and increase enrollment. Meanwhile, the quality of what they actually do is held hostage to these goals. Fields of study and curricula become "market driven". Admission standards are watered down. Grades are inflated. Students are well aware that flunking anyone is considered bad for a professor's, and the school's, reputation, and might even leave them open to a lawsuit: don't students pay good money so that they can come out with a *degree*, and aren't people entitled to what they've paid for? "Student based curricula" apotheosize subjective reaction and opinion = rather than objective instruction. Post-modern deconstruction cynically denies = the fallaciousness of the _ad hominem_ attack, not to mention the existence of truth, and reduces all discussion to an analysis of power plays. Lest any applicant be excluded or unduly burdened by the need to actually attend classes, behold: distance education. Most students bother with the = process only because, in their view, a degree =3D a high-paying job =3D heaven. = Berman notes that universities in the business of selling diplomas therefore have all the integrity of medieval priests selling indulgences. Isn't some = kind of earth-shaking reformation just as inevitable an eventuality?   Berman doubts that the present decline of our civilization is going to be rolled back. But he believes that a few individuals who care enough can have a great effect on what will rise from its ashes-- just as a few monasteries managed to preserve the classical books through the dark ages that, in due course, would fertilize the high medieval period and the Renaissance. In our case, what needs to be preserved through the coming dark age is not information-- we're drowning already in information-- so much as an alternative, i.e. traditional, value system. People who resolutely pursue a discipline because they believe that it is good, true, and beautiful will become like monks in the former dark age. They will be known by personal acquaintance and word of mouth, perhaps, but inasmuch as by definition they will not be interested in selling out to the System as another neatly packaged, over-promoted bromide in exchange for lavish foundation grants and fifteen minutes of fame, they will remain relatively obscure, independent, uninstitutionalized figures. The examples he gives = in the book are very inspiring.   In the light of this outlook, let's wonder: should we *worry* or browbeat ourselves specifically because contemporary organ composition does not = have the quality and quantity of one or two centuries ago? Should we be frantically searching for some new bandwagon, an unprecedented way to make the organ, what we play on it, and how we play it, something it has never been before, so that more people will attend recitals? I'm not sure that this is what we should be about. What is the problem, and what is the solution?