PipeChat Digest #4412 - Monday, April 5, 2004
 
Re: Website
  by "Mike Gettelman" <mike3247@earthlink.net>
Re: readings and a chuckle or two
  by "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net>
Messiaen in Florida?
  by "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net>
Re: Vibrato and Pastoral Care
  by "bobelms" <bobelms@westnet.com.au>
until total compliance was attained
  by "Charlie Lester" <crlester@137.com>
Re: readings and a chuckle or two
  by "Melisma" <melisma@uniserve.com>
Re: readings and a chuckle or two
  by "Melisma" <melisma@uniserve.com>
Re: Website
  by "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net>
RE: readings and a chuckle or two
  by "Glenda" <gksjd85@direcway.com>
Quote
  by "First Christian Church of Casey, IL" <kzrev@rr1.net>
Re: "Startling a few people" - Messiaen
  by "Malcolm Wechsler" <manderusa@earthlink.net>
RE: Flag near alter (Re: Earth Day)
  by "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu>
Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC
  by "nycchelsea@yahoo.com" <nycchelsea@yahoo.com>
Re: Britain's best organists are lured to America by higher wages
  by "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com>
Re: Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC
  by <Oboe32@aol.com>
Re: PipeChat Digest #4411 - 04/05/04
  by "Christopher Howerter" <OrgelspielerKMD@msn.com>
Re: Flag near alter (Re: Earth Day)
  by "Randolph Runyon" <runyonr@muohio.edu>
Re: PipeChat Digest #4411 - 04/05/04
  by "Randolph Runyon" <runyonr@muohio.edu>
Re: Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC
  by <ahremsen40@aol.com>
 

(back) Subject: Re: Website From: "Mike Gettelman" <mike3247@earthlink.net> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 19:29:04 -0400   Dear Paul, The idea that you need HTML knowledge to create a website went out the = door long ago. There are many sources of software to help create websites = with little or no HTML knowledge. If you want to make changes to what you = produce though, a chart of HTML commands and a bit of practice is all you = need. HTML is like diacriticals. As long as you know the the key strokes and what they do, the rest is = easy. After reading your contributions to this group over the past several = years, I have no doubt that you could create a terrific website and fill = it with anything you like. MP3s are a fantastic source of education for = the music loving public. I imagine if you posted a site with some = recordings, it would receive many hits, particularly from those that know you. I look forward to seeing and hearing your efforts. Keep us posted.   Cheers Mike Gettelman   "Emmons, Paul" wrote:   > Dear Travis, > > Congratulations! > > It looks as though I need to arrange to get bored more. Making Web = sites, or first learning how to do so, would be a good accomplishment. = I've always been curious about the technicalities, but apparently also = apprehensive. > > About eight or ten years ago, one of my colleagues here at the library = learned HTML, among many other ways in which he was ahead of the game, = well enough to teach it to the rest of us. He's now our library director, = to everyone's delight. > > Eric Raymond, a famous and formidable Unix free-lancer who graces these = parts, and who keeps the hacker spirit (in the best sense) alive = world-wide, has written that HTML should now top the list of what every = hacker should know. Given that I've learned a few computer things that = are much more abstruse, I should get with it. > > But it also takes talent. Perhaps I'm afraid of it because I'm no = visual artist whatsoever, and that if & when I try to put up a web site as = you have just done, this will become obvious to the world. > > With this skill and art, you'll probably never starve. Are you = available to help those of us who lack the virtuosity at the computer = keyboard that we have at the organ? We can call it teaching by the = monitor system :-) > > Paul >    
(back) Subject: Re: readings and a chuckle or two From: "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 20:18:13 -0400   On 4/5/04 5:51 PM, "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> wrote:   > "I've--got--di'-rhie-e-e-a" and see if he could get away with it. It's > probably happened.   Depends on the meaning of "It's". I hope.   Alan    
(back) Subject: Messiaen in Florida? From: "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 20:24:08 -0400   On 4/5/04 5:56 PM, "Keys4bach@aol.com" <Keys4bach@aol.com> wrote:   > and yes I play [Messiaen=B9s] stuff. >=20 GOOD for Dale in Florida! Our organ doesn=B9t handle it at all well, but it=B9s sure worth a try now and then!   Alan (who likes Dale=B9s funny font less than his music choices)    
(back) Subject: Re: Vibrato and Pastoral Care From: "bobelms" <bobelms@westnet.com.au> Date: Tue, 6 Apr 2004 08:27:10 +0800   Well, Richard, Bud did talk about a course at a Seminary in pastoral care. = I said that this would be the last thing I would need. I stand by that statement. Incidentally, I play for the love of it - no salary available here. That seems to fit your interpretation. Bob Elms.     ----- Original Message ----- From: "Richard Huggins" <huggins88@yahoo.com> To: "PipeChat" <pipechat@pipechat.org> Sent: Monday, April 05, 2004 11:34 PM Subject: Re: Vibrato and Pastoral Care > > Perhaps the term "pastoral care" as Bud meant it and as Bob intepreted = it > are not the same. Personally speaking I took Bud's use of it to mean > pastoral care through our specific musical skills, i.e., doing something > with our particular set of skills to minister to a heart need (soul = need) of > a parishioner. >    
(back) Subject: until total compliance was attained From: "Charlie Lester" <crlester@137.com> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 17:29:57 -0700   =3D-> (This is the same priest who would tell EVERYONE to kneel, then stop dead in his tracks at the altar until total compliance was attained!) <-=3D     Including the "other-abled" [P.C. for "handicapped"], one supposes.      
(back) Subject: Re: readings and a chuckle or two From: "Melisma" <melisma@uniserve.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 17:23:46 -0700   You guys and your irreverent humor remind me of the terrible ditties my friends and I used to come up with when we were children back in = Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in the early 1980s... These two were set to the tune of 'We Three Kings' - and we discarded the refrain. Sing them aloud and see how they fit <eg>...   The one always made me giggle so hard I couldn't sing it all the way through. And Cumberland Square was a local strip shopping mall in town - don't know if it's still in operation or not.   1. We three kings of Orient are Sucking on a rubber cigar. It was loaded and exploded... (spoken) BOOM!!!!!   2. We three kings of Cumberland Square - Trying to sell some cheap underwear. So fantastic, no elastic! Twenty-five cents a pair!   Okay, so we weren't poets-laureate, any of us :)   Melisma (skittering back under her Rock to avoid the rotten tomatoes being hurled her way!)        
(back) Subject: Re: readings and a chuckle or two From: "Melisma" <melisma@uniserve.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 17:27:02 -0700     > The one always made me giggle so hard I couldn't sing it all the way > through.     Oops, meant the *first* one... sheesh, sorry!   Melisma (darting back under her Rock, looking for the right crayon to = color over the red in her cheeks)        
(back) Subject: Re: Website From: "Alan Freed" <acfreed0904@earthlink.net> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 20:35:22 -0400   On 4/5/04 6:26 PM, "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> wrote:   > Are you available to help those of us who lack the virtuosity at the = computer > keyboard that we have at the organ? We can call it teaching by the = monitor > system :-)   Travis: Soak 'em. Big time! They're rich organists, doncha know?   Better yet. Don't give 'em a fish. Teach them HOW TO FISH. (I don't = have a clue how to do it, so it's easy for me to say.)   Alan (really silly tonight)    
(back) Subject: RE: readings and a chuckle or two From: "Glenda" <gksjd85@direcway.com> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 19:37:58 -0500   Sounds like triple jeopardy to me! Does he need a good lawyer?   Glenda Sutton gksjd85@direcway.com   -----Original Message----- From: pipechat@pipechat.org [mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org] On Behalf Of Richard Hazelip Sent: Monday, April 05, 2004 8:52 AM To: pipechat@pipechat.org Subject: readings and a chuckle or two   This year's Palm Sunday readings went off almost without a hitch.=A0 Out of the five masses that I attend, Pilate found Jesus guilty rather than not guilty at three of the masses.=A0 Jesus had to endure only one set = of buffets (buffays), and spitting was not mispronounced at all!=A0        
(back) Subject: Quote From: "First Christian Church of Casey, IL" <kzrev@rr1.net> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 20:12:52 -0500   "to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable?"   I've always heard it attributed to Philips Brooks, he of "O Little Town of Bethlehem" fame; believe he was a clergyman (Episcopal?).   Dennis Steckley & A Six-Pack of Cats    
(back) Subject: Re: "Startling a few people" - Messiaen From: "Malcolm Wechsler" <manderusa@earthlink.net> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 21:24:52 -0400   Dear Paul and List,   Never start a sentence with but. But, is it not true that at La Trinit=E9, Messiaen was not permitted to play his own music? I was once told this, = but I can't imagine that it covered all of his several decades as Titulaire. Perhaps it was only during the tenure of some querulous priest. Does = someone know the facts about this?   There is a wonderful article about Messiaen in John Henderson's "Directory of Composers for Organ." It is worth seeking out. One thing John points = out is the love we all have of the early works, and the mixed feelings there = are for the later works. I remember friends who had heard the long, later = works, and were a bit put off by them. Some of them had attended Messiaen = recitals at the Royal Festival Hall in London, an acoustic from Hell, hardly a fair hearing. I attended all six of Olivier Latry's complete Messiaen recitals = at St. Ignatius Loyola in New York, and did wonder beforehand about those = later works, as yet unknown to me. The experience was stunning, right to the = end. Latry programmed these Messiaen recitals in three places, St. Paul's in London, St. Ignatius Loyola, New York, and The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris (where he also recorded the complete works). These places were = chosen specifically because they contained Organs suited to the music, a visual distinction, and, last but clearly not least, an acoustical atmosphere similar to that for which the music was composed. In New York, there was very good attendance at these recitals, and it was clear that the church actually got more full as the series progressed. I think it was the year before that Jon Gillock also performed the complete works at Riverside Church, in a series of concerts in the wonderful new Riverside acoustics. Those concerts were also very well attended. I think I am now ready for = one of Paul Jacobs's nine hour marathons, with the complete Messiaen works, = and I do mean that. That kind of saturation in the style might be a whole new and richer experience.   Cheers,   Malcolm Wechsler www.mander-organs.com   ----- Original Message ----- From: "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> To: "PipeChat" <pipechat@pipechat.org> Sent: Monday, April 05, 2004 4:11 PM Subject: RE: "Startling a few people"     > Someone wrote: "I do have the Dialogue sur les Mixtures, which I might use...also a good piece for startling a few people. "   > Is that the mission to which we see ourselves called as Ministers of Music?   "Startle" is not usually _le_mot_juste_-- but it is definitely part of our mission to facilitate encounters with the Numinous, one of whose characteristics is the mysterious and unexpected. I'd consider "never wanting to be startled" to be imply not wanting to see God as transcendent.   Olivier Messiaen himself startled me several times at the National Shrine during his premiere of "Meditations sur le Mystere de la Saint Trinite," especially with the opening of the fourth movement, headed with the words "L'etrangete des timbres et des chants d'oiseaux choisis doit evoquer quelque dimension inconnue" (The strangeness of the timbres and the bird songs chosen must evoke an unknown dimension). At the opening, he gave "L'extraordinaire cri du Pic noir" on the Pontifical Trumpet-- three quick dissonant chords, followed by a long chord on full swell pp and a deep = pedal note. I don't know how a piece beginning thus can fail to startle. And = who would suggest that Messiaen (who, let us remember, had probably the most sterling reputation of *any* twentieth-century organ composer in the = larger musical world) was doing wrong in writing and playing it thus?   "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org List: mailto:pipechat@pipechat.org Administration: mailto:admin@pipechat.org Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:requests@pipechat.org          
(back) Subject: RE: Flag near alter (Re: Earth Day) From: "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 21:31:20 -0400   Randy Runyon writes:   > I don't see as how the church needs to make an appeal to the > constitution or whatever powers that be for the right to meet. The = church > has been doing its thing for centuries before the constitution, and > shouldn't have to ask anyone's permission... Besides, I should hope = that any church > worth its salt in the U.S.A. would be meeting anyway, whether the = state gave > it the right to do so or not. [Emmons, Paul] =20   Of course, she doesn't need to do ask for permission to meet. But I = think that one of the consequences of believing in the Incarnation-- not = to mention simply acknowledging the Noahchic Covenant-- is that an = interest in government is part of a Christian's purview. Furthermore, = if we pray for peace and, in general, good government, and are granted = these blessings to the extent that that we are free to meet and worship, = then displaying the flag of that government is part of thanksgiving. = And for our our cheekier moments/sides/companions, we might even = consider the flag a reminder that the guarantees extended by that = government might sometimes be the main reason that the rest of the = country puts up with us. If those around us love us, fine, but making = sure they do so is not what we're here for. Also, that for our fellow = churchmen in other places, the Christian life doesn't always come as = easily as it has done for us.=20   It's certainly a thought-provoking issue, more paradoxical than I = thought before reading William Stringfellow, who warns that the church = must be very suspicious of power structures of all kinds. =20              
(back) Subject: Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC From: "nycchelsea@yahoo.com" <nycchelsea@yahoo.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 18:45:13 -0700 (PDT)   Can someone tell the history of the Schlicker organ at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in New York City?   I attended a organ concert there and was struck at how beautiful this instrument sounds...   Only to read on a the bullitan board after the concert that the organ was "beyond repair" and to be replaced when funds were raised.   Is this just a change in taste in organs of the congregation? or is the organ REALLY in that bad of shape?       __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Small Business $15K Web Design Giveaway http://promotions.yahoo.com/design_giveaway/  
(back) Subject: Re: Britain's best organists are lured to America by higher wages From: "John L. Speller" <jlspeller@mindspring.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 20:50:57 -0500     ----- Original Message ----- From: "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> To: "PipeChat" <pipechat@pipechat.org> Sent: Monday, April 05, 2004 2:41 PM Subject: RE: Britain's best organists are lured to America by higher wages     > It is the latest form of organ transplant. Britain's most talented pipe organists are being poached by churches in the United States with the promise of higher salaries and better job security. Better job security? Where?? Gerre Hancock has said that all the rector would need to do is pick up the phone, and he no longer has a job.   That still gives them about 200% more job security than they have in Britain. Well, actually, that is a bit of an exaggeration -- the = situation there is the same as here, although the average clergyman in the Church of England is in my opinion not as nice, so organists are more likely to get fired there arbitrarily.   >I welcome fine British musicians, but would hate for any more to be lured over here by such promises when they're false. Martin Neary and Stephen Ridgley Whitehouse are at least two of whom I = know, who found out the hard way that powers-that-be don't mind abusing Brits = any more than Americans.   I don't know about Stephen Ridgley-Whitehouse, but I do know that Martin Neary had previously been fired by Westminster Abbey before he came to the United States. I happen to think he is a very fine musician, but perhaps = he is a little too inflexible for his own good.   >And the Americans at least don't then have green cards to worry about = when it happens.   So why do churches go to the trouble of hiring British organists when it involves them in no end of administrative work obtaining visas for them?   I am British, although I came here 22 years ago not for any vocational reason but because I fell in love with and married an American woman who wanted to be here.   Personally, I also think that American organists are every bit as good as British ones, and that there is no need to fill American posts with = British organists in most denominations.   On the other hand, however, most American colleges do not give a great = deal of instruction in the Anglican tradition, and it is understandable that Episcopal churches in particular might consider British candidates more qualified. This is the fault of the educational system, not of the candidates themselves. It might be argued that Episcopal churches have = the best music, and this would be a good argument for American colleges doing something to try to prepare people for working in the Episcopal Church. = My wife is an Episcopal priest and although our little church only has a 1/4-time organist, she was horrified by the ignorance of one of our former organists who had just graduated from a well-known college. She advised = him to go back to college and learn more about it, and am happy to say he has done just this and is currently finishing a doctorate under a Professor = who is a fine Episcopal organist and he has now become a first rate Anglican musician. Would that we could afford to hire him back again!   It may also be of interest to know that the British are as upset as the Americans that many of their leading organists are crossing the Pond, and articles on the subject have recently appeared in several leading British newspapers. On the other other hand, if the British paid their organists = a decent salary, they wouldn't want to come to the USA. Now it is true that salaries in Britain are lower in general than in the USA. If this were merely the problem there would not, I think, be much of a problem. In the USA it might be said that an organist gets about the same as the average Postal Service worker -- not very much by US standards. However, in Britain, the average organist probably gets about a quarter of the salary = of a Postal worker in Britain.   Perhaps we should just live and let live.   P.S. I know of yet another distinguished British organist (possibly two) about to cross the Pond, but fear that I am not yet at liberty to say who.   John Speller      
(back) Subject: Re: Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC From: <Oboe32@aol.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 21:57:00 EDT   The Schlicker at Grace is in fact in terrible shape. Much of the pipework = has been improperly racked and either does not speak or is beyond repair. = There is SOME good pipework left in the instrument from the old Skinners that = still have their console in the rear of the Nave. In truth, that organ is not = suited to the congregational needs. Grace has a long established choir of Men and =   Boys, as well as Girls, all directed by Patrick Allen. Grace is a = wonderful buildings, and though the organs may look pretty, they are thin, possess = tons of mechanical problems, and do not suite the building or the program. Aside = from the Skinner 32' and color stops in the instrument, I hope a complete new = organ is in the future.   -Peter Isherwood    
(back) Subject: Re: PipeChat Digest #4411 - 04/05/04 From: "Christopher Howerter" <OrgelspielerKMD@msn.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 21:56:46 -0400   I must say that I remember reading in the the book, "Baptized, We Live" = (a Lutheran theology book) that no flags are supposed to be in the = worship place. The reasoning behind this was that we all come together = worshipping as the body of Christ of the whole world, not just one = country or state. I remember seeing a few flags in some Lutheran = churches before. <g> I was wondering if this tidbit is actually some = sort of policy with in the denomination...might anyone know?   Sincerely, Christopher J. Howerter, SPC Director of Music & Organist St. Paul's Lutheran Church Bethlehem, PA Cell: (610) 462-8017 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   Subject: Re: Flag near altar (Re: Earth Day) From: "Alan Freed" = <acfreed0904@earthlink.net<mailto:acfreed0904@earthlink.net>> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 18:58:07 -0400   On 4/5/04 3:49 PM, "Emmons, Paul" = <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu<mailto:PEMMONS@wcupa.edu>> wrote:   > Well, look on the good side: it ought to justify the state's = chipping in for > the maintenance of the organ and maybe even for the remuneration and = job > security of the organist.   Well, now THERE'S a good thought! At the very least, they should fund = the conservatories of music! Fine PLAN, Paul!   Alan, hoping they'll buy some fine new ranks, mixtures, even chamades!   Alan     ----------------------------------------------------------------------  
(back) Subject: Re: Flag near alter (Re: Earth Day) From: "Randolph Runyon" <runyonr@muohio.edu> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 22:04:50 -0400   on 4/5/04 9:31 PM, Emmons, Paul at PEMMONS@wcupa.edu wrote:   > > > Of course, she doesn't need to do ask for permission to meet. But I = think > that one of the consequences of believing in the Incarnation-- not to = mention > simply acknowledging the Noahchic Covenant-- is that an interest in > government is part of a Christian's purview. Furthermore, if we pray = for > peace and, in general, good government, and are granted these blessings = to the > extent that that we are free to meet and worship, then displaying the = flag of > that government is part of thanksgiving.... > > It's certainly a thought-provoking issue, more paradoxical than I = thought > before reading William Stringfellow, who warns that the church must be = very > suspicious of power structures of all kinds.   Thanks for mentioning William Stringfellow. I did a little looking, found http://www.victorshepherd.on.ca/Heritage/Stringfellow.htm, and so now I = know who you're talking about. I will seek out his books. I'll return the = favor by suggesting you read Walter Wink, who's very good on identifying the principalities and powers (Ephesians 6: 12) against which we have to contend.   I'm all for Christians having an interest in government, but I don't see = the point in displaying the flag of that government in a spirit of = thanksgiving. I think God is the only One we have to thank at the altar. Especially if, as you suggest, it is to God that we pray for peace and good government, = not to the government.   There is an interesting statement from the ELCA at   http://www.elca.org/dcm/worship/faq/worship_space/flags.html   to the effect that maybe it would all right to put the flag in the church gymnasium:   "The worship space of the congregation is not the best place to display national flags, for such display honors neither the integrity of the flag nor the sovereignty of the Lordship of Christ. In reality, national interests and the commitment of the Christian to Christ can come into conflict.   "A responsible alternative to putting the flag in the worship space would = be to display it prominently placed in other suitable places. Placing flags = in the fellowship or community hall, the gymnasium, or other large meeting = room used by civic groups such as scouting organizations or for civic functions such as voting, allows the flag to carry out its symbolic function for the nation without competing with the central symbols of the Christian faith. Congregations that have war memorial chapels, plaques, or books of remembrance and the like and which desire to display the American flag = might want to consider placing the flag near those places in their building = rather than in the worship space."     Randy Runyon Music Director Zion Lutheran Church Hamilton, Ohio runyonr@muohio.edu        
(back) Subject: Re: PipeChat Digest #4411 - 04/05/04 From: "Randolph Runyon" <runyonr@muohio.edu> Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 22:15:08 -0400   on 4/5/04 9:56 PM, Christopher Howerter at OrgelspielerKMD@msn.com wrote:   I must say that I remember reading in the the book, "Baptized, We Live" (a Lutheran theology book) that no flags are supposed to be in the worship place. The reasoning behind this was that we all come together = worshipping as the body of Christ of the whole world, not just one country or state. = I remember seeing a few flags in some Lutheran churches before. <g> I was wondering if this tidbit is actually some sort of policy with in the denomination...might anyone know?   Sincerely, Christopher J. Howerter, SPC Director of Music & Organist St. Paul's Lutheran Church Bethlehem, PA Cell: (610) 462-8017     Quite so. In Christ there is no East or West, no Jew or Greek. Don't = know if you are Missouri Synod or ELCA. The ELCA statement at http://www.elca.org/dcm/worship/faq/worship_space/flags.html is basically against flags at the altar but is expressed in such a wimpy = way that it doesn't sound like a binding position. Anyway, there is a flag in my ELCA church. It's funny that if you encounter flags in a European = church they are likely to be enemy flags, displayed as trophies of war. Does = this mean that Americans are from Venus, and Frenchman from Mars, contrary to popular opinion? ;-)     Randy Runyon Music Director Zion Lutheran Church Hamilton, Ohio runyonr@muohio.edu        
(back) Subject: Re: Schlicker at Grace Church at 10th street and Broadway in NYC From: <ahremsen40@aol.com> Date: Mon, 5 Apr 2004 23:06:39 EDT   Dear Folks,   In my opinion the only good stop in the Schlicker at Grace Church is the Skinner 32' Open Wood! The shame of it is that it replaced a truly = wonderful double Skinner, Chancel and Gallery organs. The same thing happened at the =   Cathedral in Garden City, L.I., N.Y. A noble Roosevelt was replaced by a = truly gruesome Schlicker, now replaced by a Casavant. Shameful!   Allan Remsen