PipeChat Digest #4345 - Friday, March 5, 2004 RE: Another interesting apparatus by "Tom Hoehn" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Re: Methodists by "Margo Dillard" <email@example.com> Re: Welcome to PipeChat? by "T.Desiree' Hines" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Happy-Clappies and Jumbotrons and Drums, OH MY!!! by "George Greene" <email@example.com> Re: Illuminated stop controls by "noel jones" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Steiner-Reck is still building by "Larry Wheelock" <email@example.com> Re: Illuminated stop controls by <firstname.lastname@example.org> RE: Another interesting apparatus by "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> RE: Illuminated stop controls by "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> Re: Methodists by <DudelK@aol.com> Re: PipeChat Digest #4344 - 03/05/04 by "Larry Wheelock" <email@example.com> Gulpy Bourdon by "firstname.lastname@example.org" <email@example.com> Re: Certain Organ apperiti...oops the apparati part by "firstname.lastname@example.org" <email@example.com> Re: Welcome to PipeChat? by <Praestant@aol.com> Re: The Tubas and Bombarde at York by "Colin Mitchell" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Steiner-Reck and push button stop controls by <RMB10@aol.com> Re: Gulpy Bourdon and an aside to Ken by "Alan Freed" <email@example.com> Re: Illuminated stop controls by <RMB10@aol.com> Re: Certain Organ apperiti...oops the apparati part by "Colin Mitchell" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(back) Subject: RE: Another interesting apparatus From: "Tom Hoehn" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 14:59:58 -0500 Gee whiz guys--- Wurlitzer had those chamber assignment switches on their larger installations with multiple chambers. I played Fred Hermes "Beast in the Basement" (5m34r) and it had the Wurlitzer toggle switches right over the solo manual and it was the original console from the Michigan Theatre (I think) in Detroit. I'm looking forward to going back in July for the aTOS convention in Milwaukee and hearing it again. Tom Hoehn, Organist Roaring 20's Pizza & Pipes, Ellenton, FL (substitute - 4/42 Wurlitzer) First United Methodist Church, Clearwater, FL (4/9?- = Rodgers/Ruffati/Wicks) Manasota/OATOS/HiloBay/CIC-ATOS/VotS-ATOS/DTOS http://theatreorgans.com/tomhoehn -----Original Message----- From: firstname.lastname@example.org [mailto:email@example.com]On Behalf Of Travis Evans Sent: Friday, March 05, 2004 12:38 PM To: PipeChat Subject: Re: Another interesting apparatus The Shoenstein at First Plymouth UCC in Lincoln Nebraska has this as = well, though a bit of a variation, they are like small knobs that pull out, = samme sort of one that the Schlicker in the music building had at Concordia = Seward for the combo system. http://www.firstplymouth.org/organs/images/console_schoenstein.jpg You can see them just under the coupler rail in the photo if you go to = the link above. Travis "T.Desiree' Hines" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: In the position where a coupler rail would usually be, there is a = square shaped box which has movable switches for the expression pedals. For example, you can make any expression shoe operate any of the divisions. = OR, you can make all divisions expressive on any one of the expression shoes. All you do is move the switches to which ever position you want.
(back) Subject: Re: Methodists From: "Margo Dillard" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 05 Mar 2004 14:07:44 -0600 But the Methodist churches of which I speak (from my childhood) - which were much "higher church" than those I now work with and see in Texas - with discipline study, communion every Sunday, with the sung/long version - was in Alabama - just across the line from you. The Meth. churches I know in Alabama and Georgia are nowhere near Baptist in theology or worship style. My parents' church has lightened up a bit in the last 10 years or so - but prior to that, you would have had to go out and check the sign in front to tell it apart from the Episcopal church in town, and it is still much more liturgical/formal than out here in Texas. Keys4bach@aol.com wrote: > In a message dated 3/5/2004 9:31:47 AM Eastern Standard Time, > firstname.lastname@example.org writes: > >> I can't imagine a Methodist having no familiarity with the discipline. > > > > then you have not been around to many different UMC churches in > different cities. you mention later in the post that the people come > and go with preacher appointments and who is offering the latest and > flashiest. Those kind of people have no stake in Methodism and would > not read it let alone own one. > > The farther south you go the more "Baptist" they become 'Open Doors Open = > Arms" means come and get it. A big difference between UMC and Unitarian = > Uni's is the Trinity.....wait, that might be the ONLY difference. > > dale in Florida whom went to UM seminary and kinda sorta knows what he > is talking about. -- Dr. Margo Dillard Organist, FUMC, Lewisville, TX Musical Feast Choral Society Dillard Piano & Organ Studio
(back) Subject: Re: Welcome to PipeChat? From: "T.Desiree' Hines" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 12:10:44 -0800 (PST) Hi there Ken. Don't leave ths group. Its a nice group. I get to share my opinions more = here. Don't be offended. Ken <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: On 5 Mar 2004, at 12.29 PM, Praestant@aol.com wrote: > Is he also Jewish and a Nxxx I just rejoined this list after a lengthy time away, and this is what I find. Perhaps I should have stayed away. Kenneth L. Sybesma Choirmaster and Organist Church of the Advent, Westbury NY Temple Organist & Director of Children's Music Temple Or Elohim, Jericho NY "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org List: mailto:email@example.com Administration: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:email@example.com From Desiree' T. Desiree' Hines Chicago, IL 60649 http://concertartist.info/bios/hines.html --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster.
(back) Subject: Happy-Clappies and Jumbotrons and Drums, OH MY!!! From: "George Greene" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 12:16:54 -0800 (PST) YIKES!!! I'd like to apologize to EVERYONE on the list for igniting another happy-clappy war. I am very sorry. I've been in the center of the worship wars in my church for most of the past decade, and I occasionally become very frustrated. And then my fingers get ahead of my brain and I hit that oh-so-dangerous "Send" key! I submit myself for thirty lashes with a wet tracker lever and I promise to behave now. -George Greene __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster http://search.yahoo.com
(back) Subject: Re: Illuminated stop controls From: "noel jones" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 05 Mar 2004 15:16:44 -0500 Sebastian: "Console gimmickry has reached spectacular heights, and while such things might be desirable for effects in VERY complex services that border on theatrical productions, there really is not an abundance of literature written for such things. I believe that the great organ literature, and much of the liturgy of the mainstream denominations, was conceived for organs of limited gadgetry. I would rather direct the funds toward a more elegant case, an additional stop, the extension of a short-compass stop to full range, or higher quality materials in the keyboards or pipe metal. Or maybe even putting it into the maintenance endowment for the instrument" What funds, Sebastian? The lit controls of many builders, including Rieger of Austria, are a cost-savings. Cost-savings, no matter how grandious the amount, cannot be spent. But you know that. If the stop controls of a certain manufacturer bother you because of the time and expense getting at the little tiny bulb to repair it why not complain to the manufacturer rather than exposing it as a public issue... Why complain? I did in November of 2002 and in January 2003 they announced a new drawknob, lit, that can quickly and easily be re-bulbed from its face... I know that you will be especially pleased to learn that these drawknobs, like all lit drawknobs used by Rodgers, are manufactured for Rodgers and the entire Pipe Organ Industry, which means you too, by = Syndyne. -- noel jones, aago
(back) Subject: Steiner-Reck is still building From: "Larry Wheelock" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 14:31:06 -0600 ....and reports of its demise are very premature. The firm continues under the able direction of Gottfried Reck; witness the handsome II-27 instrument featured in this month's "The American Organist" on page 76. Phares Steiner is happily retired in MD. There is another east-coast organ builder whose instruments I have hear-of recently who goes by the name of Steiner, but this is not Phares, nor is it his son, Paul. I have known Gottfried Reck and Phares Steiner for close to 30 years now, so this gives me opportunity to set-straight some rumors which have circulated over the years about the firm. 1. Phares Steiner voluntarily, no, eagerly retired from the firm to enjoy an slower-paced lifestyle in light of his family's history of congenital heart-problems and early deaths. He was NOT, 'forced out by a mean-spirited partner' as I have heard some parties state. 2. Gottfried Reck did not "hijack'"the firm or insist on his name being on the organs. Phares endeavored to change the name of the firm from the time of the late 70's to better reflect the nature of their partnership (51/49 as I recall.) Gottfried resisted for quite some time. Why? - that, I dunno - perhaps it was the cost of new stationery and calling cards, Gottfried being the frugal type. He only relented when Phares began to reveal his plans for early retirement (and it was not that early - I can't remember his age, but he was certainly of an respectable age for retirement, especially given the family history.) I have assurances of the veracity of these statements I have made, both verbally from Phares himself, and in writing from Phares also. Put to rest the rumors, and also the rumor that they are gone. 'taint so. Larry Wheelock Director of Music Ministries Kenwood United Methodist Church Milwaukee, Wisconsin email@example.com On Mar 5, 2004, at 1:59 PM, PipeChat wrote: > ---------------------- > > Subject: Re: Another interesting apparatus > From: <Praestant@aol.com> > Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 12:32:11 EST > > > In a message dated 5.3.04 12.29.51 PM, firstname.lastname@example.org writes: > > >> I was thinking of Steiner Reck, who also uses it today. >> > > Are Steiner-Reck still building? I thought the principals had retired > or > closed shop, in which case this would be an historic rather current > example. >
(back) Subject: Re: Illuminated stop controls From: <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 15:37:34 -0500 It may be just a matter of time, but before too long the pipe organ indus= try=20 will also begin using the lighted draw-knobs. Once you become familiar,i= ts=20 difficult to go back. By the way, the burned out bulb discussions are history, quality organ=20 manufacturers today use a light source that can not burn out. Gary Quoting TubaMagna@aol.com: > Illuminated stop controls, while remaining a fascination for those = who=20 > are mesmerized by small, shiny objects, are impractical. This is > particularly=20 > true of the push on / push off variety, where there is no PHYSICAL way = of=20 > determining the status of a stop once the little light bulb has burned = out. > I once played an imitation instrument that sported drawknobs that l= it=20 > when pulled, and extinguished when pushed again. However, they were > spring-loaded=20 > like a pinball launcher, and snapped back to "off position" whether on = or=20 > off. So in addition to throwing off one's traditional, spatial sense of= what > a=20 > drawknob should be, one also had to eventually deal with replacing the = light >=20 > source. They were the most noticeably flimsy bits of plastic I had eve= r=20 > encountered. The domed, ground glass of early 20th century luminous pip= e > organ=20 > controls, albeit more elegant and sturdy, was no more practical. > Console gimmickery has reached spectacular heights, and while such = things >=20 > might be desirable for effects in VERY complex services that border on=20 > theatrical productions, there really is not an abundance of literature > written for=20 > such things. I believe that the great organ literature, and much of the > liturgy=20 > of the mainstream denominations, was conceived for organs of limited > gadgetry. > I would rather direct the funds toward a more elegant case, an addi= tional >=20 > stop, the extension of a short-compass stop to full range, or higher qu= ality >=20 > materials in the keyboards or pipe metal. Or maybe even putting it into= the=20 > maintenance endowment for the instrument. >=20 > Sebastian M. Gluck > New York City >=20 > . > "Pipe Up and Be Heard!" > PipeChat: A discussion List for pipe/digital organs & related topics > HOMEPAGE : http://www.pipechat.org > List: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org > Administration: mailto:email@example.com > Subscribe/Unsubscribe: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org >=20 >=20 >=20
(back) Subject: RE: Another interesting apparatus From: "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 15:45:44 -0500 As I recall, Kimball called these multi-position switches "selective = expression." I first saw them on the Kimball (now long departed) at = Lawrence College Chapel when I was a kid for whom, of course, the more = switches and push buttons anything had, the better. On an old Angel recording of Noel Rawsthorne playing at Liverpool = Cathedral (actually, v.1 of the Great Cathedral Organ series) there is a = portrait in which he is seated at the console, and we can see a similar = set of slide switches there. In this and other vintage examples, it may = be at the bottom of the right-hand stop jamb, rather than above the top = manual. The Willis III "infinite gradation" expression is still installed there, = too, in which the pedals spring back to an intermediate position and the = degree the organist moves them governs the speed, rather than the = amount, of opening or closing. Judging from a recital on the nave = console that I heard and saw a few years ago, this system didn't look = very convenient, because half the gauges that indicate the current = position of the swell shades are on one stop jamb, and half on the = other. The organist must look from side to side constantly to know = their state. It must, at least, require a lot of getting used to. As already noted, Schoenstein has revived the selective expression = concept. On a recent organ crawl that included St. Paul's, K Street, = Washington DC (their largest organ as of the time it was built, and one = of the first on the east coast) I noticed that two of the swell shoes, = elegantly made of cast iron or the like, already showed discernible = signs of wear-- so much is the organ played and the swell boxes used in = that situation. For an organ of the romantic school with four, five, or = more sets of swell shades, doesn't it make good sense for their layout = among the pedals to be adjustable for various needs?
(back) Subject: RE: Illuminated stop controls From: "Emmons, Paul" <PEMMONS@wcupa.edu> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 15:52:59 -0500 I'm still a gadget-happy kid at heart, in many ways. But an organ = console so full of flashing lights that you can turn it around to face = the congregation in December and they don't need a Christmas tree seems = to be overdoing it.
(back) Subject: Re: Methodists From: <DudelK@aol.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 16:07:39 EST We really don't care about Methodist churches of any age, per se. This is pipechat, or at least it used to be, not churchchat. Enough already!
(back) Subject: Re: PipeChat Digest #4344 - 03/05/04 From: "Larry Wheelock" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 15:10:26 -0600 I rarely disagree with Sebastian, but I must take exception to: On Mar 5, 2004, at 1:59 PM, Sebastian wrote: > Illuminated stop controls, while remaining a fascination for those who > are mesmerized by small, shiny objects, are impractical. This is > particularly > true of the push on / push off variety, where there is no PHYSICAL way > of > determining the status of a stop once the little light bulb has burned > out. While this is true, the chances of the problem occurring is greatly lessened when the controls are lighted by light-emitting diodes (LED) rather then by incandescent bulbs. Steiner-Reck (and no doubt some other builders) does this. Yes, yes, it is possible for a diode to fail - (rare, but possible) but then it is just as possible for a stop-knob to fail, either the pneumatically or electrically operated kind. Even mechanical-action instruments can have stop-knob problems. In the 80's I regularly played a small instrument by a builder (I won't name, don't ask(but I CAN be bribed)) whose stop-controls were so poorly designed that they would regularly come off in my hand as I drew them. I got into the habit of tossing them over my shoulder -- to the delight of the choir. ANY innovation goes through a period of refinement before it becomes accepted as 'traditional'. If you recall, some of the earliest modern pipe-organs (Blokwerk) had no stop-controls whatsoever. How long do you suppose it took before stops became fashionable? Can't you just hear the proponents of the traditional blokwerk complaining - "The organist is forever fiddling with those stops to change the sound of the organ, as if she had any idea what it should sound like. It's a distraction, it breaks down, and it's not appropriate for God's house!" Ambient lighting is, however a constant problem with stop-controls lighted from behind the face. I have been in a situation several times where very bright light from another source made it impossible to see which stops were 'on' and which were 'off'. The S-R console at St. Michael's Lutheran in Germantown (Phila.) has such stop-controls, and although it was rare, it did happen. The later S-R instrument at Trinity Seminary in Columbus (OH) addressed this problem by placing a bright-red LED over the actual stop-control rather than behind it, and this seems to eleviate the problem of ambient light, the red LED seeming to pierce the brightest ambient light Lighted push on/off controls have the advantage of far fewer moving parts and are absolutely silent when used by the combination action. This feature was somewhat wasted at St. Michaels, Germantown, because the church's lovely acoustic environment amplified the "whoosh-ka-thump' of hundred-year-old slider chests forced into action by powerful electric slider-motors. Nevertheless, in the right circumstance, these controls. are very, very quiet, unlike stop-keys or even most power-operated drawknobs. Larry Wheelock (looking for a small, shiny object to throw at Sebastian):-) Forbes magazine's annual list of the billionaires on the planet reminds us how much easier it is to count the extremely rich than the extremely poor.
(back) Subject: Gulpy Bourdon From: "firstname.lastname@example.org" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 13:22:55 -0800 (PST) Greetings! Charlie Lester mentions the "gulpy BOurdon" in an organ played by Gordon Young on the recording which includes "Beneath the Cross of Jesus." I too have heard "gulpy Bourdons" on organs.... What causes this? How can one eliminate the "gulp" in a BOurdon? Best wishes to all Morton Belcher fellow list member --- Charlie Lester <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: [snip] I > also remember that the Pedal had a rather "gulpy" > Bourdon. > > ~ > C > __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster http://search.yahoo.com
(back) Subject: Re: Certain Organ apperiti...oops the apparati part From: "email@example.com" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 13:28:29 -0800 (PST) --- "T.Desiree' Hines" <email@example.com> wrote: > > The apperati part... > What and when did the things that make our lives > easier come into play? Barker levers on trackers > etc. > > Unique chest designs such as Austin also. I remember > reading an old ad from Austin that came out in the > early 1900's. A mentor showed it to me. It was > talking about Austin consoles in contrast to other > consoles. "Austin Consoles have light unvaried > action!" and "Austin Consoles have stopkeys in line > of vision." It's awesome for my generation of > organists to see stuff like that. > > Trivia! > > Which organ builder today makes consoles with > luminated, push button stops? Rodgers > AND > What builder did consoles like that yester-year in > the 1900's? > Estey > Hint: We have been talking about the builder of the > 2nd question some already.I delete my emails alot, > and thist very well may have been talked about. > > > > From Desiree' > T. Desiree' Hines > Chicago, IL 60649 > http://concertartist.info/bios/hines.html > > --------------------------------- > Do you Yahoo!? > Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster. __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster http://search.yahoo.com
(back) Subject: Re: Welcome to PipeChat? From: <Praestant@aol.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 16:38:49 EST In a message dated 5.3.04 2.53.16 PM, firstname.lastname@example.org writes: > On 5 Mar 2004, at 12.29 PM, Praestant@aol.com wrote: >=20 > >=A0 Is he also Jewish and a Nxxx >=20 Maybe I should have asked if the gay black Republican is a member of the Ku=20 Klux Klan as well. Is he an organist? There, on-topic.
(back) Subject: Re: The Tubas and Bombarde at York From: "Colin Mitchell" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 14:08:36 -0800 (PST) Hello, I don't know from where Sebastian Gluck derives his information concerning the Tuba Mirabilus at York Minster which, so far as I am aware, has never been radically altered since the Walker re-build of 1963. It was still barking happily away the last time I heard the instrument! Which recordings, I wonder? Certainly, all the gruff irregularity was there in the Great Cathedral Organs record series by EMI. It was also still there in the Polydor recording, and doesn't seem to have gone away in the Mirabilus recording of Bairstow's organ works. Could it simply be different microphone placements? Trouble is, I haven't played the organ for a while, so I do not have first-hand console experience to relate. However, to answer the broader question, the organ also has enclosed Tubas at 16ft and 8ft, which are typically Arthur Harrison style reeds, and very, very useful for service accompaniment. These are quite robust and quite round in tone. When Principal Organs (owned by Geoffrey Coffin who was a one time Assistant Organist at York Minster) rebuilt the instrument about a decade ago, they did add ANOTHER en chamade reed facing EAST rather than West, and called Bombarde 8ft. I've never heard anyone get enthusiastic about this particular addition! As for the BIG Tuba Mirabilus, the en chamade disposition makes an otherwise loud and tubby Tuba on heavy wind (25"wg) something of a monster, with a certain bark to it. Trouble is, it is so uneven and wild, it is literally all over the place. For those who might enjoy such things, I can do no better than commend listening to the Cocker Tuba Tune as played by Francis Jackson on the EMI Great Cathedral Organ series. Not only is the sound captured especially well, so too is the uneveness.....but as I stated previously, it is a reed with enormous character, and no one wants to change it! Well, that's the sound I have used, the sound I remember and, so far as I am aware, the same sound as now. Regards, Colin Mitchell UK __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster http://search.yahoo.com
(back) Subject: Steiner-Reck and push button stop controls From: <RMB10@aol.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 17:14:32 EST Steiner-Reck built an organ for a Lutheran church three blocks from my = house that was installed about a year and a half ago. It has those little illuminated stop buttons, but what makes it very difficult to see, is that = on the tops of the stop controls are little pieces of wood laminate with the stop = names engraved on them, so only the sides of the stop buttons actually light up. = When the lights in the chancel are on, it's almost impossible to tell what = stops are on or off. Other organs I've played with similar stop controls didn't = have the wood tops on the plastic squares, so you could tell when the stop was = on or off much easier. Petty-Madden also uses the same kind of stop control = as does Ontko. Give me a moving stopknob or stoptab or tilting tablet anyday = over a light up any day of the week! Monty Bennett
(back) Subject: Re: Gulpy Bourdon and an aside to Ken From: "Alan Freed" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri, 05 Mar 2004 17:14:53 -0500 On 3/5/04 4:22 PM, "email@example.com" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: > Morton Belcher > fellow list member Well (if I may say so without offense), THAT's good news, at least! As for YOU, Ken, hang in there. Obviously, it was pretty disgusting. = We're having an awkward moment. Now past, I think. THIS list has SUPERB management, and I think all is well. (For a chuckle [or a tear, depending on your temperament], just imagine = the fires being lit OFF-list!) Alan
(back) Subject: Re: Illuminated stop controls From: <RMB10@aol.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 17:26:45 EST >Stop tablets on burbed jambs that move ccan be cute too. I'm assuming that Desiree means a stop tablet layout such as in a theatre organ. When we were designing the new organ, I was trying to figure out a = way to keep the console profile low, and we talked about possibly doing the = European style of tilting tablets on the side jambs, but it was only going to save = me about 1/2"-1" in console height, so I opted to just go with the = "traditional" drawknobs. If I could have saved a considerable amount of console height, = I would have considered other options, but with a five manual console and = about 225 stop controls, plus another 42 couplers, what ever I did was going to = take up a huge amount of space. Monty Bennett
(back) Subject: Re: Certain Organ apperiti...oops the apparati part From: "Colin Mitchell" <email@example.com> Date: Fri, 5 Mar 2004 14:33:59 -0800 (PST) Hello, I think you will find that "light and unvaried actions" were around in the UK sometime shortly after 1850, using pneumatic systems, which were developed to an extraordinary degree over here. Indeed, there are still organ-builders around who can work on them, as the recently completed re-build of the Schulze/Binns organ at St.Bart's, Armley demonstrates. However, some of the finest developments came in the field of Fairground Organs (Band Organs), and anyone who has heard the instantaneous response and repetition of a Mortier (Beligian) organ, will know just how sophisticated these systems became. The Industrial Revolution was an age of exceptional machanical genius, and of course, the punch-card, pneumatic action of the Fairground Organs derived from the Jacquard Loom mechanism, invented in the 18th century, and always regarded as "the perfect invention" by engineering academics. Frankly, I am suprised that pneumatics haven't continued to be used for Swell Box actions and Slider controls....they are so reliable and durable. Of course, a good pneumatic action takes a lot of work and is expensive to produce, but the very finest exhaust pneumatic systems (as per Arthur Harrison) are a joy to play, with only minimal delay and excellent repetition. Indeed, when some Formula One motor-racing engine designers use pneumatic valve arrangements, which even at half speed, are opening and closing at something like seventy five times per second, I wonder of pneumatic organ action ever fully realised its potential. I've watched pneumatic actions on beautifully engineered post war looms, and they were incredibly effective, but of course, operated on very high pressures measured in many pounds per square inch!! Regards, Colin Mitchell UK > > --- "T.Desiree' Hines" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: "Austin Consoles have light unvaried > > action!" ? > > __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Search - Find what you=92re looking for faster http://search.yahoo.com